Pulsars, generally accepted to be rotating neutron stars, are dense, neutron-packed remnants of massive stars that blew apart in supernova explosions. They are typically about 10 kilometers across and spin rapidly, often making several hundred rotations per second. Depending on star mass, gravity compresses the matter in the cores of pulsars up to more than ten times the density of ordinary atomic nuclei, thus providing a high-pressure environment in which numerous particle processes, from hyperon population to quark deconfinement to the formation of Boson condensates, may compete with each other. There are theoretical suggestions of even more ""exotic"" processes inside pulsars, such as the formation of absolutely stable strange quark matter, a configuration of matter even more stable than the most stable atomic nucleus, ^T56Fe. In the latter event, pulsars would be largely composed of pure quark matter, eventually enveloped in nuclear crust matter. These features combined with the tremendous recent progress in observational radio and x-ray astronomy make pulsars nearly ideal probes for a wide range of physical studies, complementing the quest of the behavior of superdense matter in terrestrial collider experiments. Written by an eminent author, Pulsars as Astrophysical Laboratories for Nuclear and Particle Physics gives a reliable account of the present status of such research, which naturally is to be performed at the interface between nuclear physics, particle physics, and Einstein's theory of relativity.
New Phenomena and New States of Matter in the Universe
Author: César A Zen Vasconcellos
Publisher: World Scientific
This book presents scientific research on the central theme of new states of matter and new phenomena in the universe. The topics covered range from the big bang, through topics including the formation of exotic stars, black holes and the plasma of quarks and gluons by heavy ion reactions, to the influence of dark matter and dark energy in the evolution of the universe. Scientific interest in these themes has been growing: together with the development of major projects such as AUGER, LHC, FERMI Telescope, FAIR/GSI and GEO/LIGO, the diversity and scope of research on such themes has been on the rise. The content is detailed enough to capture the interest of experts in the field and is useful for future explorations on these fascinating themes. Contents:Supercritical Fields, Extreme Neutron-Rich Isotopes, and Short Living Giant Atoms (W Greiner)Quark-Gluon Plasma in Neutron Stars (R B Jacobsen et al.)An Investigation of the Coupling Constants in Quantum Hadrodynamics Effective Models (L N Burigo et al.)Neutron Stars in an Effective Model with Adjustable Coefficients (A Mesquita et al.)Color Superconductivity with 2 and 3 Flavors in the Chromodielectric Model (M Vidalis & M Malheiro)Analogue of Superradiance Effect in Acoustic Black Hole in the Presence of Disclination (F A Gomes & G A Marques)On the Quintessence Scalar Field Potential (J A E Carrillo et al.)Dark Energy Equation of State and Cosmic Topology (S D P Vitenti et al.)Some Topological Effects in Safko–Witten Spacetime (V B Bezerra)and other papers Readership: Students and professionals interested in astronomy and astrophysics. Keywords:General Relativity;Gravitation;Cosmology;Compact Stars;Cosmic Matter in the Laboratory;IwaraKey Features:This book features prominent scientists as contributors, including Walter Greiner, Horst Stoeker, Fridolin Weber and Marcelo GleiserIt provides a comprehensive overview on the important theme of compact stars and related topicsIt provides an overview of the research front on new phenomena and new states of matter in the universe
The book gives an extended review of theoretical and observational aspects of neutron star physics. With masses comparable to that of the Sun and radii of about ten kilometres, neutron stars are the densest stars in the Universe. This book describes all layers of neutron stars, from the surface to the core, with the emphasis on their structure and equation of state. Theories of dense matter are reviewed, and used to construct neutron star models. Hypothetical strange quark stars and possible exotic phases in neutron star cores are also discussed. Also covered are the effects of strong magnetic fields in neutron star envelopes.
The supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way is the nearest such object and relatively easy to observe and study. Not surprisingly therefore, it is the best studied supermassive black hole. Many astrophysical and even general relativistic effects can be investigated in great detail. The Galactic Black Hole: Lectures on General Relativity and Astrophysics provides a systematic introduction to the physics/astrophysics and mathematics of black holes at a level suitable for graduate students, postdocs, and researchers in physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and applied mathematics. The focus is mainly on the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way but the results can be easily generalized taking it as an example. Leading international experts provide first-hand accounts of the observational and theoretical aspects of this black hole. Topics range from the properties of the Schwarzschild metric and the collapse of a black hole, to quantum gravity, and from the structure of the Galaxy to accretion of matter and the emission properties of the Galactic Center black hole.
The Eighth Mexican School of Particles and Fields was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society. It brought together worldwide experts to give a series of courses and plenary lectures on particle physics (experiments and phenomenology), quantum field theory, string theory, and astroparticle physics. In addition to the lectures, research seminars were held providing a forum for participants to discuss their work. This book provides a summary of the recent advances in these fields.