This radical, profoundly scholarly book explores the purposes and nature of proof in a range of historical settings. It overturns the view that the first mathematical proofs were in Greek geometry and rested on the logical insights of Aristotle by showing how much of that view is an artefact of nineteenth-century historical scholarship. It documents the existence of proofs in ancient mathematical writings about numbers and shows that practitioners of mathematics in Mesopotamian, Chinese and Indian cultures knew how to prove the correctness of algorithms, which are much more prominent outside the limited range of surviving classical Greek texts that historians have taken as the paradigm of ancient mathematics. It opens the way to providing the first comprehensive, textually based history of proof.
During the last decade, argumentation has attracted growing attention as a means to elicit processes (linguistic, logical, dialogical, psychological, etc.) that can sustain or provoke reasoning and learning. Constituting an important dimension of daily life and of professional activities, argumentation plays a special role in democracies and is at the heart of philosophical reasoning and scientific inquiry. Argumentation, as such, requires specific intellectual and social skills. Hence, argumentation will have an increasing importance in education, both because it is a critical competence that has to be learned, and because argumentation can be used to foster learning in philosophy, history, sciences and in many other domains. Argumentation and Education answers these and other questions by providing both theoretical backgrounds, in psychology, education and theory of argumentation, and concrete examples of experiments and results in school contexts in a range of domains. It reports on existing innovative practices in education settings at various levels.
Information and Communication Technologies, Modeling, Visualization and Experimentation
Author: Marcelo C. Borba
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book offers a new conceptual framework for reflecting on the role of information and communication technology in mathematics education. Borba and Villarreal provide examples from research conducted at the level of basic and university-level education, developed by their research group based in Brazil, and discuss their findings in the light of the relevant literature. Arguing that different media reorganize mathematical thinking in different ways, they discuss how computers, writing and oral discourse transform education at an epistemological as well as a political level. Modeling and experimentation are seen as pedagogical approaches which are in harmony with changes brought about by the presence of information and communication technology in educational settings. Examples of research about on-line mathematics education courses, and Internet used in regular mathematics courses, are presented and discussed at a theoretical level. In this book, mathematical knowledge is seen as developed by collectives of humans-with-media. The authors propose that knowledge is never constructed solely by humans, but by collectives of humans and technologies of intelligence. Theoretical discussion developed in the book, together with new examples, shed new light on discussions regarding visualization, experimentation and multiple representations in mathematics education. Insightful examples from educational practice open up new paths for the reader.
Although proving is core to mathematics as a sense-making activity, it currently has a marginal place in elementary classrooms internationally. Blending research with practical perspectives, this book addresses what it would take to elevate the place of proving at elementary school. The book uses classroom episodes from two countries to examine different kinds of proving tasks and the proving activity they can generate in the elementary classroom. It examines further the role of teachers in mediating the relationship between proving tasks and proving activity, including major mathematical and pedagogical issues that arise for teachers as they implement each kind of proving task. In addition to its contribution to research knowledge, the book has important implications for teaching, curricular resources, and teacher education.
An Introduction to the World of Proofs and Pictures
Author: James Robert Brown
Publisher: Psychology Press
Philosophy of Mathematics is an excellent introductory text. This student friendly book discusses the great philosophers and the importance of mathematics to their thought. It includes the following topics: * the mathematical image * platonism * picture-proofs * applied mathematics * Hilbert and Godel * knots and nations * definitions * picture-proofs and Wittgenstein * computation, proof and conjecture. The book is ideal for courses on philosophy of mathematics and logic.