Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity
Author: Anthony Kaldellis
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Justinian governed the Roman empire for more than thirty-eight years, and the events of his reign were recorded by Procopius of Caesarea, secretary of the general Belisarius. Yet, significantly, Procopius composed a history, a panegyric, as well as a satire of his own times. Anthony Kaldellis here offers a new interpretation of these writings of Procopius, situating him as a major source for the sixth century and one of the great historians of antiquity and Byzantium. Breaking from the scholarly tradition that views classicism as an affected imitation that distorted history, Kaldellis argues that Procopius was a careful student of the classics who displayed remarkable literary skill in adapting his models to the purposes of his own narratives. Classicism was a matter of structure and meaning, not just vocabulary. Through allusions Procopius revealed truths that could not be spoken openly; through anecdotes he exposed the broad themes that governed the history of his age. Elucidating the political thought of Procopius in light of classical historiography and political theory, Kaldellis argues that he owed little to Christianity, finding instead that he rejected the belief in providence and asserted the supremacy of chance. By deliberately alluding to Plato's discussions of tyranny, Procopius developed an artful strategy of intertextuality that enabled him to comment on contemporary individuals and events. Kaldellis also uncovers links between Procopius and the philosophical dissidents of the reign of Justinian. This dimension of his writing implies that his work is worthy of esteem not only for the accuracy of its reporting but also for its cultural polemic, political dissidence, and philosophical sophistication. Procopius of Caesarea has wide implications for the way we should read ancient historians. Its conclusions also suggest that the world of Justinian was far from monolithically Christian. Major writers of that time believed that classical texts were still the best guides for understanding history, even in the rapidly changing world of late antiquity.
This volume aims to encourage dialogue and collaboration between international scholars by presenting new literary and historical interpretations of the sixth-century writer Procopius of Caesarea, the major historian of Justinian’s reign. Although scholarship on Procopius has flourished since 2004, when the last monograph in English on Procopius was published, there has not been a collection of essays on the subject since 2000. Work on Procopius since 2004 has been surveyed by Geoffrey Greatrex in his international bibliography; Peter Sarris has revised the 1966 Penguin Classics translation of, and introduced, Procopius’ Secret History (2007); and Anthony Kaldellis has edited, translated and introduced Procopius’ Secret History, with related texts (2010), and revised and modernised H.B. Dewing’s Loeb translation of Procopius’ Wars as The Wars of Justinian in 2014. This volume capitalises on the renaissance in Procopius-related studies by showcasing recent work on Procopius in all its diversity and vibrancy. It offers approaches that shed new light on Procopius’ texts by comparing them with a variety of relevant textual sources. In particular, the volume pays close attention to the text and examines what it achieves as a literary work and what it says as an historical product.
Commonly regarded as the last major historian of the ancient Western world, Procopius of Caesarea accompanied the Roman general Belisarius in the wars of the Emperor Justinian. Procopius became the principal historian of the sixth century, writing the major work ‘The Wars of Justinian, in addition to ‘The Buildings of Justinian’ and the infamous ‘Secret History’. Delphi’s Ancient Classics series provides eReaders with the wisdom of the Classical world, with both English translations and the original Greek texts. This comprehensive eBook presents Procopius’ complete extant works, with beautiful illustrations, informative introductions, special dual Greek and English text and the usual Delphi bonus material. (Version 1) * Beautifully illustrated with images relating to Procopius’ life and works * Features the complete extant works of Procopius, in both English translation and the original Greek * Concise introductions to the historical books * Includes H. B. Dewing’s translations, previously appearing in the Loeb Classical Library edition of Procopius * Excellent formatting of the texts * Easily locate the books or sections you want to read with detailed contents tables * Includes Procopius’ rare work THE BUILDINGS OF JUSTINIAN, first time in digital print * Provides a special dual English and Greek text, allowing readers to compare the sections paragraph by paragraph – ideal for students * Features a bonus biography – discover Procopius’ ancient world * Scholarly ordering of texts into chronological order and literary genres Please visit www.delphiclassics.com to explore our range of Ancient Classics titles or buy the entire series as a Super Set CONTENTS: The Translations THE WARS OF JUSTINIAN SECRET HISTORY THE BUILDINGS OF JUSTINIAN The Greek Texts LIST OF GREEK TEXTS The Dual Texts DUAL GREEK AND ENGLISH TEXTS The Biography INTRODUCTION TO PROCOPIUS by H. B. Dewing Please visit www.delphiclassics.com to browse through our range of exciting titles
This dissertation examines the sixth-century historian Procopius' engagement with the ancient, especially Roman, past in his eight-volume History of the Wars of Justinian. Procopius wrote in a classicizing style that originated with Herodotus and Thucydides a millennium earlier, and yet constructed a work that was both assiduously concerned with contemporary matters, and made an impassioned argument for the importance of the classical past. I examine the many ways in which Procopius engages with memory, applying theories of social memory to help us understand better Procopius' memory-related goals and techniques. This demonstrates not only what memory studies can add to our study of Procopius, but what the study of Late Antiquity can add to our understanding of the functioning of social memory. I use "historical memory" to indicate both the memory of the genre of historiography, and contemporary social memory preserved and transformed by a work of history. The study begins with an introductory Chapter 1, which covers historical and theoretical background, then analyzes Procopius' own introductory prologue. The collection and discussion of the many types of Procopius' references to and engagements with the ancient past follows, with Chapter 2 examining the intertextual references (including a study of Procopius' "rhetorical asides") and Chapter 3 examining the textual. Here, I look at his citations of specific past eras, persons, or events (historical and mythic), as well as comparisons of past and present and presentation of the effects of time: both loss and preservation. Among the themes that are revealed in this analysis is an overarching concern of Procopius' with the specifically Roman past, and in Chapter 4 I turn to examine Procopius' presentation of Rome, Romans, and Roman-ness in more detail. I chart his changing use of the identifier "Roman," as well as his use of other ethnic monikers, and the central position the city of Rome plays in the text's remembering. The concluding Chapter 5 re-considers key themes and passages in the light of the work of Aleida Assmann, Alan Megill, and Pierre Nora, among others, and situates Procopius in the context of the remembering of sixth-century Constantinople.
Originally published by Duckworth and the University of California Press, Procopius is now available for the first time in paperback. Professor Cameron emphasises the essential unity of Procopius' three works and, starting from the `minor' ones, demonstrates their intimate connection with the Wars. Procopius' writings are seen to comprise a subtle whole; only if they are understood in this way can their historical value be properly appreciated. The result is a new evaluation of Procopius which will be central to any future history of the sixth century.
History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire's enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian. Procopius, born at Caesarea in Palestine late in the 5th century, became a lawyer. In 527 CE he was made legal adviser and secretary of Belisarius, commander against the Persians, and went with Belisarius again in 533 against the Vandals and in 535 against the Ostrogoths. Sometime after 540 he returned to Constantinople. He may have been that Procopius who was prefect of Constantinople in 562, but the date of his death (after 558) is unknown. Procopius's History of the Wars in 8 books recounts the Persian Wars of emperors Justinus and Justinian down to 550 (2 books); the Vandalic War and after-events in Africa 532-546 (2 books); the Gothic War against the Ostrogoths in Sicily and Italy 536-552 (3 books); and a sketch of events to 554 (1 book). The whole consists largely of military history, with much information about peoples and places as well, and about special events. He was a diligent, careful, judicious narrator of facts and developments and shows good powers of description. He is just to the empire's enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian. Other works by Procopius are the Anecdota or Secret History--vehement attacks on Justinian, Theodora, and others; and The Buildings of Justinian (down to 558 CE) including roads and bridges as well as churches, forts, hospitals, and so on in various parts of the empire. The Loeb Classical Library edition of Procopius is in seven volumes.
A Reconstruction of Family y in the light of a hitherto unkown Manuscript (Athos, Lavra H-73)
Author: Maria Kalli
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
The Introduction, which gives information about the life and work of Procopius and also about previous editions and studies of the text, is followed by Chapter 1 which contains an analytical codicological and palaeological description of codex Ath, which was written in the late 13th century and is thus the earliest extant ms of Procopius' Wars. Section 2 examines the position of the codex in the stemma codicum, proposed by the latest editor of the text, Jacob Haury, Procopius Caesariensis Opera Omnia (Teubner: Leipzig, 1905-12, revised by G.Wirth, 1963). A collation of the text with the principal manuscripts (K and L) of the two families, z and y, shows that Ath belongs to the y family. A further collation of Ath with all other extant manuscripts of this family of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, illustrates the importance of Ath in the tradition of the text, despite its minor phonetic, grammatical, syntactical and linguistic errors. Section 3 gives a description and updated information of all manuscripts of family y, which were briefly described by previous editors, and some of them were not examined at all, before their relation is examined and the stemma codicum is revised on the basis of a series of propositions. It is concluded that Ath has been the exemplar for some of the later manuscripts, either directly or through intermediaries. The study concludes with a more theoretical chapter, Section 4, which places the production of Ath and other manuscripts, containing Procopius' works and other early Byzantine historiographical texts, in the general context of the intellectual milieu of the Palaeologan period.
History of three wars from the reign of Justinian, Byzantine emperor -- The Persian War, The Vandalic War, and The Gothic War. According to Wikipedia: "Procopius of Caesarea (Latin: Procopius Caesarensis, c. AD 500 – c. AD 565) was a prominent Byzantine scholar from Palestine. Accompanying the general Belisarius in the wars of the Emperor Justinian I, he became the principal historian of the 6th century, writing the Wars of Justinian, the Buildings of Justinian and the celebrated Secret History. He is commonly held to be the last major historian of the ancient world."
Procopius of Caesarea (in Palestine) is the most important source for information about the reign of the emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora. From 527 to 531 Procopius was a counsel the great general of the time, Belisarius. He was on Belisarius's first Persian campaign, and later took part in an expedition against the Vandals. He was in Italy on the Gothic campaign until 540, after which he lived in Constantinople, since he describes the great plague of 542 in the capital. His life after that is largely unknown, although he was given the title illustris in 560 and in may have been prefect of Constantinople in 562-3. He wrote a number of official histories, including On the Wars in eight books, published 552, with an addition in 554, and On the Buildings in six books, published 561. He also left a "Secret History" , probably written c. 550 and published after his death, which was a massive attack on the character of Justinian and his wife Theodora. Parts are so vitriolic, not to say pornographic, that for some time translations from Greek were only available into Latin. The Secret History claims to provide explanations and additions that the author could not insert into his work on the Wars for fear of retribution from Justinian and Theodora. Since both before and afterward, Procopius wrote approvingly of the emperor, it was suggested in the past that he was not the author of the work, but it is now generally accepted that Procopius wrote it. Analysis of text, which show no contradictions in point of fact between the Secret History and the other works, as well a linguistic and grammatical analysis makes this a conclusive opinion.
History of WarsHistory of Wars (De Bellis, Gr. Polemon) is a work divided into eight books on the wars waged by the Roman Empire during the reign of Justinian I, many of whom were Procopius witnesses in person. The first seven books seem to have been completed around 545, but were updated shortly before their publication in 552, as they include references to events from the early 551s. Procopius later added Book VIII, which reports the events that occurred until 552, the year in which General Narses definitively destroyed the Ostrogothic Kingdom during the Gothic War.About the buildingsOn the buildings (lat.De aedificiis; gr.Peri Ktismaton) is a panegyric about the numerous public works performed by the Emperor Justinian. Structured in six books, it was written surely in the second half of the 550s, and published in 561. In this work, Justinian is presented as the prototype Christian ruler who builds churches for the glory of God, fortifies the city for the safeguard of its Subjects and shows a particular concern for water supply.Secret StoryProcopio's most celebrated work is Secret History. Although it is mentioned in Suda, where it takes the Greek title of Anekdota (unpublished composition), it was only discovered several centuries later, in the Vatican Library, and it was not edited until 1623. It covers the same years that the first seven books of the Wars, and Seems to have been written after the editing of this work. The most accepted theory places the date of its composition around 550, although other authors prefer the date of 562. According to the author, in the work he relates what he was not authorized to write in his official works for fear of reprisals of Justinian and Theodora .The Secret History constitutes a vitriolic invective against Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora, not forgetting his old friend Belisario and his wife, Antonina. The statements he makes regarding these characters - especially about Theodora - come to the pornographic. It contrasts sharply with the vision of the emperor Proc�pio in his On the buildings with the picture given here, to the point of having doubted that he was the true author of the Secret History. The analysis of the text, however, corroborates this attribution in a reliable way.
According to Wikipedia: "Procopius of Caesarea (Latin: Procopius Caesarensis, c. AD 500 – c. AD 565) was a prominent Byzantine scholar from Palestine. Accompanying the general Belisarius in the wars of the Emperor Justinian I, he became the principal historian of the 6th century, writing the Wars of Justinian, the Buildings of Justinian and the celebrated Secret History. He is commonly held to be the last major historian of the ancient world."