Technologies of Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali
Author: J. Stephen Lansing
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Social Science
For the Balinese, the whole of nature is a perpetual resource: through centuries of carefully directed labor, the engineered landscape of the island's rice terraces has taken shape. According to Stephen Lansing, the need for effective cooperation in water management links thousands of farmers together in hierarchies of productive relationships that span entire watersheds. Lansing describes the network of water temples that once managed the flow of irrigation water in the name of the Goddess of the Crater Lake. Using the techniques of ecological simulation modeling as well as cultural and historical analysis, Lansing argues that the symbolic system of temple rituals is not merely a reflection of utilitarian constraints but also a basic ingredient in the organization of production.
Humankind's Changing Role in the Community of Life
Author: Johnson Donald Hughes
Publisher: Psychology Press
This original work follows a chronological path through the history of mankind, in relationship to ecosystems around the world. Each chapter concentrates on a general period in human history; each also has three case studies which illustrate the significant patterns occurring at that time.
Along rivers in Bali, small groups of farmers meet regularly in water temples to manage their irrigation systems. They have done so for a thousand years. Over the centuries, water temple networks have expanded to manage the ecology of rice terraces at the scale of whole watersheds. Although each group focuses on its own problems, a global solution nonetheless emerges that optimizes irrigation flows for everyone. Did someone have to design Bali's water temple networks, or could they have emerged from a self-organizing process? Perfect Order--a groundbreaking work at the nexus of conservation, complexity theory, and anthropology--describes a series of fieldwork projects triggered by this question, ranging from the archaeology of the water temples to their ecological functions and their place in Balinese cosmology. Stephen Lansing shows that the temple networks are fragile, vulnerable to the cross-currents produced by competition among male descent groups. But the feminine rites of water temples mirror the farmers' awareness that when they act in unison, small miracles of order occur regularly, as the jewel-like perfection of the rice terraces produces general prosperity. Much of this is barely visible from within the horizons of Western social theory. The fruit of a decade of multidisciplinary research, this absorbing book shows that even as researchers probe the foundations of cooperation in the water temple networks, the very existence of the traditional farming techniques they represent is threatened by large-scale development projects.
Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures
Author: Helaine Selin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures consists of about 25 essays dealing with the environmental knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Indian, Thai, and Andean views of nature and the environment, among others, the book includes essays on Environmentalism and Images of the Other, Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Worldviews and Ecology, Rethinking the Western/non-Western Divide, and Landscape, Nature, and Culture. The essays address the connections between nature and culture and relate the environmental practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both environmental history and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.
In 2008, half of the Earth’s population will live in urban areas, marking the first time in history that humans are an urban species. State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future examines changes in the ways cities are managed, built, and lived in that could tip the balance towards a healthier and more peaceful urban future.
Focusing on social innovation broadly conceived in the context of social entrepreneurship and social enterprise in their global context this book is organised to address three of the most important themes in social innovation: strategies and logics, performance measurement and governance, and finally, sustainability and the environment.
A collection of essays written specifically to help graduate students of Religious Studies and Theology in their quest to become professional scholars and professors: this candid and yet practical guide is indispensable reading for graduate students of religion (and cognate fields). Contributions aim to encapsulate the 'pearls of wisdom' that each contributor feels would have assisted them when they themselves were graduate students. Many of the problematic themes of studying religion or religions emerge, but they do so concretely, that is, within the narratives of the lives of experienced professors. These problems are therefore not simply or predominantly dealt with as mere intellectual abstractions. The biographical flavour of many of the essays will help the graduate student reader relate to the work of more experienced students of Religious Studies and Theology and may even constitute important reading for scholars who are dealing with the oeuvre of contributors. Contains more than a dozen essays written by a mix of well established and younger scholars including: David Chidester, Harold Coward, Donald A. Crosby, Michel Desjardins, Marc H. Ellis, Darlene Jushka, Klaus Klostermaier, Kay Koppendrayer, Charles H. Long, Larry Patriquin, Vern Neufeld Redekop, Carolyn Sharpe, Jon R. Stone, Russell T. McCutcheon.>