The Dynamics of Geographic Patterning in Seed Plant Species
Author: Jonathan D. Sauer
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Using cases of plant migration documented by both historical and fossil evidence, Jonathan D. Sauer provides a landmark assessment of what is presently known, and not merely assumed, about the process.
Competitiveness describes a key ability important for plants to grow and survive abiotic and biotic stresses. Under optimal, but particularly under non-optimal conditions, plants compete for resources including nutrients, light, water, space, pollinators and other. Competition occurs above- and belowground. In resource-poor habitats, competition is generally considered to be more pronounced than in resource-rich habitats. Although competition occurs between different players within an ecosystem such as between plants and soil microorganisms, our topic focusses on plant-plant interactions and includes inter-specific competition between different species of similar and different life forms and intra-specific competition. Strategies for securing resources via spatial or temporal separation and different resource needs generally reduce competition. Increasingly important is the effect of invasive plants and subsequent decline in biodiversity and ecosystem function. Current knowledge and future climate predictions suggest that in some situations competition will be intensified with occurrence of increased abiotic (e.g. water and nutrient limitations) and biotic stresses (e.g. mass outbreak of insects), but competition might also decrease in situations where plant productivity and survival declines (e.g. habitats with degraded soils). Changing interactions, climate change and biological invasions place new challenges on ecosystems. Understanding processes and mechanisms that underlie the interactions between plants and environmental factors will aid predictions and intervention. There is much need to develop strategies to secure ecosystem services via primary productivity and to prevent the continued loss of biodiversity. This Research Topic provides an up-to-date account of knowledge on plant-plant interactions with a focus on identifying the mechanisms underpinning competitive ability. The Research Topic aims to showcase knowledge that links ecological relevance with physiological processes to better understanding plant and ecosystem function.
Margins are by their very nature environmentally unstable - does it therefore follow that plant populations adapted for life in such areas will prove to be pre-adapted to withstand the changes that may be brought about by a warmer world? Biogeography, demography, reproductive biology, physiology and genetics all provide cogent explanations as to why limits occur where they do, and the purpose of this book is to bring together these different avenues of enquiry. Crawford's numerous beautiful illustrations of plants in their natural habitats remind us that the environment remains essential to our understanding of plants and their function. This book is suited to students, researchers and anyone with an interest in the impact of climate change on our world.
Living plant collection and ex situ conservation are not only the core mission of modern botanical gardens, but also the basis of the scientific mission of botanical gardens and the responsibility to safeguard plant diversity by botanical community. The Ex situ Flora of China is a multi-decade project which has made significant achievements and aroused public interest. Based on the latest progress of the project, this book provides up-to-date summary and resources of ex situ plant conservation worldwide and mainly in China. The book includes four major parts: (1) Overview of Botanical Garden Based Research, (2) World Garden Flora, (3) Ex situ Flora of China, (4) Introduction to 312 Families of Angiospermae, Gymnospermae and Pteridophyta. This book will greatly benefit global ex situ conservation and provide valuable information to serve agriculture, forestry, horticulture and medicinal plant industries.
Plants have been exposed to multiple environmental stressors on long-term (seasonal) and short-term (daily) basis since their appearance on land. However, the frequency and the intensity of stress events have increased much during the last three decades because of climate change. Plants have developed, however, a multiplicity of modular and highly integrated strategies to cope with challenges imposed by novel, usually harsher environments. These strategies include migration, acclimation and adaptation. Twelve articles in this research topic exactly focus on the relative significance of these response mechanisms for the successful acclimation of plants to a wide range of novel environmental pressures. Four articles , additionally, explore how plants respond to severe stress conditions resulting from the concurrent action of multiple stressors. Ten articles mostly examine how morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical-related traits integrate when plants suffer from ‘novel’ threats, such as solid, gaseous, and electromagnetic pollutants. Suitable physiological indicators for developing conservation strategies are described in the last two works. This research topic highlights that bottom-up, as well as, top-down approaches will be necessary to develop in near future in the study of plants´ responses to environmental pressures
Devastation in the Garden of Eden is a book in which the author aims to paint a picture of what actually has been happening on Kilimanjaro Mountain area. He almost emotionally endeavors to enlighten mankind and especially people who know Mount Kilimanjaro and the area around it about how attractive the mountain and the area around has been since the time immemorial. It was such a masterpiece of God, giving the example of the Biblical Garden of Eden in which God put the first man and woman, but in spite of the perfection, beauty, and bounty of resources that were put in that garden, still mankind decided to trespass. They decided to disobey God’s rules, and in the end, they got banished from the garden. The author has deliberately made this comparison with the Garden of Eden for the similarities are so closely related. In reality, that is exactly what the mountain area was like. Many people from different parts of the world have stood up and bear witness that Kilimanjaro Mountain is not only a geographical place somewhere in the continent of Africa but is a unique place and serves as a magnet to attract the humankind from various parts of the world and of various walks of life to it. Unfortunately, we will soon or later see mankind getting banished from Kilimanjaro and the area around it. Like what happened in the Garden of Eden, Kilimanjaro has faced a lot of mismanagement, and that has been in spite of the laws, regulations, and rules that, at one historical time or the other, have been put in place. Natural resources have disappeared in various ways and forms. People, ecology, and the overall ecosystem are being put to great danger. The author shows concern and calls upon the local as well as international community to come forth to address the situation. He does not attempt to point an accusing figure to any specific person or community, as almost all of us have been involved in one form or the other. He thus concludes that this should not be a war for one person, one community, or one nation, but the whole global community should join hands to reverse the ongoing situation. He ends with a remark “We must hang together, or we will all perish.”
The melting of the Ice Age glaciers heralded the arrival of the Archaic peoples in the South and the lives of the South's peoples have long been shaped and challenged by the environment. Conversely, the human impact on the South's landscape has been dramatic, from the mound building of Native Americans to the construction of cities and the birth of modern industry. Southern United States explores the historical and ecological dimensions of human interaction with the environment throughout Southern history. Examining diverse issues from the impact of the end of the Ice Age to the consequences of the U.S. space program for Florida's environment, this invaluable guide synthesizes literature from a wide range of authoritative sources to provide a fascinating guide to the South's environment. --Publisher.