This book gives a systematic overview on the scientific fundamentals of crystal growth from the classical phenomenological description to the recent theoretical contributions of statistical physics such as studies on surface roughening and on the pattern formation in the diffusion-limited growth.The book emphasizes physical concepts as well as mathematical details, and is intended to serve as lecture notes for postgraduate courses.
This text discusses the physical principles of how and why crystals grow. It introduces the fundamental properties of crystal surfaces at equilibrium, and describes simple models and basic concepts of crystal growth including diffusion, thermal smoothing of a surface, and applications to semiconductors. It also covers more complex topics such as kinetic roughness, growth instabilities, and elastic effects, as well as the crucial contributions of crystal growth in electronics during this century. The book focuses on growth using molecular beam epitaxy. Throughout, the emphasis is on the role played by modern statistical physics. Informative appendices, interesting exercises and an extensive bibliography reinforce the text.
Introduction to Crystal Growth: Principles and Practice teaches readers about crystals and their origins. It offers a historical perspective of the subject and includes background information whenever possible. The first section of this introductory book takes readers through the historical development and motivation of the field of crystal growth. With more than 40 years of experience in the field, the author covers nucleation, two-dimensional layer growth mechanism, defects in crystals, and screw dislocation theory of crystal growth. He also explains some aspects of the important subject of phase diagrams. The second section focuses on the experimental techniques of crystal growth. For practicing crystal growers, the book provides nuts-and-bolts techniques and tips. It discusses the major techniques categorized by solid–solid, liquid–solid, and vapor–solid equilibria and describes characterization techniques essential to measuring the quality of grown crystals.
International Series on the Science of the Solid State
Author: Brian R. Pamplin
Crystal Growth, Second Edition deals with crystal growth methods and the relationships between them. The chemical physics of crystal growth is discussed, along with solid growth techniques such as annealing, sintering, and hot pressing; melt growth techniques such as normal freezing, cooled seed method, crystal pulling, and zone melting; solution growth methods; and vapor phase growth. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and opens with a bibliography of books and source material, highlighted by a classification of crystal growth techniques. The following chapters focus on the molecular state of a crystal when in equilibrium with respect to growth or dissolution; the fundamentals of classical and modern hydrodynamics as applied to crystal growth processes; creation, control, and measurement of the environment in which a crystal with desired properties can grow; and growth processes where transport occurs through the vapor phase. The reader is also introduced to crystal growth with molecular beam epitaxy; crystal pulling as a crystal growth method; and zone refining and its applications. This monograph will be of interest to physicists and crystallographers.
Science and art of crystal growth represent an interdisciplinary activity based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry and crystallography. Crystal growth has contributed over the years essentially to a widening of knowledge in its basic disciplines and has penetrated practically into all fields of experimental natural sciences. It has acted, more over, in a steadily increasing manner as a link between science and technology as can be seen best, for example, from the achievements in modern microelectronics. The aim of the course "Crystal Growth in Science and Technology" being to stress the interdisciplinary character of the subject, selected fundamental principles are reviewed in the following contributions and cross links between basic and applied aspects are illustrated. It is a very well-known fact that the intensive development of crystal growth has led to a progressive narrowing of interests in highly specialized directions which is in particular harmful to young research scientists. The organizers of the course did sincerely hope that the program would help to broaden up the horizon of the participants. It was equally their wish to contribute within the traditional spirit of the school of crystallography in Erice to the promotion of mutual understanding, personal friendship and future collaboration between all those who were present at the school.
A unique text presenting practical information on the topic of nucleation and crystal growth processes from metastable solutions and melts Nucleation and Crystal Growth is a groundbreaking text thatoffers an overview and description of the processes and phenomena associated with metastability of solutions and melts. The author—a noted expert in the field—puts the emphasis on low-temperature solutions that are typically involved in crystallization in a wide range of industries. The text begins with a review of the basic knowledge of solutions and the fundamentals of crystallization processes. The author then explores topics related to the metastable state of solutions and melts from the standpoint of three-dimensional nucleation and crystal growth. Nucleation and Crystal Growth is the first text that contains a unified description and discussion of the many processes and phenomena occurring in the metastable zone of solutions and melts from the consideration of basic concepts of structure of crystallization. This important text: Outlines an interdisciplinary approach to the topic and offers an essential guide for crystal growth practitioners in materials science, physics, and chemical engineering Contains a comprehensive content that details the crystallization processes starting from the initial solutions and melts, all the way through nucleation, to the final crystal products Presents a unique focus and is the first book on understanding, and exploiting, metastability of solutions and melts in crystallization processes Written for specialists and researchers in the fields of materials science, condensed matter physics, and chemical engineering. Nucleation and Crystal Growth is a practical resource filled with hands-on knowledge of nucleation and crystal growth processes from metastable solutions and melts.
In this book, a variety of topics related to crystal growth is extensively discussed. The topics encompass the physics of growing single crystals of different functional materials, single-crystalline thin films, and even the features of crystallization of biofats and oils. It is intended to provide information on advancements in technologies for crystal growth to physicists, researches, as well as engineers working with single-crystalline functional materials.
The goal of the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures is to give a critical survey of our present knowledge on a large family of materials which can be described as solids containing molecules which in two dimensions extend to infinity and which are loosely stacked on top of each other to form three dimensional crystals. Of course, the physics and chemistry of these crystals are specific chapters in ordinary solid state science, and many a scientist hunting for new phenomena has in the past been disappointed to find that materials with layered structures are not entirely exotic. Their electron and phonon states are not two dimensional, and the high hopes held by some for spectacular dimensionality effects in superconductivity were shattered. Nevertheless, the structural features and their physical and chemical consequences singularize layered structures sufficiently to make them a fascinating subject of research. This is all the more true since they are met in insulators and semiconductors as well as in normal and superconducting metals. Although for the time being the series is intentionally limited to cover inorganic materials only, the many known organic layered structures may well be the subject of future volumes. Among the noteworthy peculiarities of layered structures, we mention specific growth mechanisms and crystal habits. Polytypism is very common and it is fasci nating indeed to find up to 240 different polytypes in the same chemical substance.
Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. The modern technological developments depend greatly on the availability of suitable single crystals, whether it is for lasers, semiconductors, magnetic devices, optical devices, superconductors, telecommunication, etc. In spite of great technological advancements in the recent years, we are still in the early stage with respect to the growth of several important crystals such as diamond, silicon carbide, PZT, gallium nitride, and so on. Unless the science of growing these crystals is understood precisely, it is impossible to grow them as large single crystals to be applied in modern industry. This book deals with almost all the modern crystal growth techniques that have been adopted, including appropriate case studies. Since there has been no other book published to cover the subject after the Handbook of Crystal Growth, Eds. DTJ Hurle, published during 1993-1995, this book will fill the existing gap for its readers. The book begins with "Growth Histories of Mineral Crystals" by the most senior expert in this field, Professor Ichiro Sunagawa. The next chapter reviews recent developments in the theory of crystal growth, which is equally important before moving on to actual techniques. After the first two fundamental chapters, the book covers other topics like the recent progress in quartz growth, diamond growth, silicon carbide single crystals, PZT crystals, nonlinear optical crystals, solid state laser crystals, gemstones, high melting oxides like lithium niobates, hydroxyapatite, GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, superconducting crystals, morphology control, and more. For the first time, the crystal growth modeling has been discussed in detail with reference to PZT and SiC crystals.
The book contains 5 chapters with 19 contributions form internationally well acknowledged experts in various fields of crystal growth. The topics are ranging from fundamentals (thermodynamic of epitaxy growth, kinetics, morphology, modeling) to new crystal materials (carbon nanocrystals and nanotubes, biological crystals), to technology (Silicon Czochralski growth, oxide growth, III-IV epitaxy) and characterization (point defects, X-ray imaging, in-situ STM). It covers the treatment of bulk growth as well as epitaxy by anorganic and organic materials.
The processes of new phase formation and growth are of fundamental importance in numerous rapidly developing scientific fields such as modern materials science, micro- and optoelectronics, and environmental science. Crystal Growth for Beginners combines the depth of information in monographs, with the thorough analysis of review papers, and presents the resulting content at a level understandable by beginners in science. The book covers, in practice, all fundamental questions and aspects of nucleation, crystal growth, and epitaxy. This book is a non-eclectic presentation of this interdisciplinary topic in materials science. The third edition brings existing chapters up to date, and includes new chapters on the growth of nanowires by the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism, as well as illustrated short biographical texts about the scientists who introduced the basic ideas and concepts into the fields of nucleation, crystal growth and epitaxy. All formulae and equations are illustrated by examples that are of technological importance. The book presents not only the fundamentals but also the state of the art in the subject. Crystal Growth for Beginners is a valuable reference for both graduate students and researchers in materials science. The reader is required to possess some basic knowledge of mathematics, physics and thermodynamics.
Fundamentals of Nucleation, Crystal Growth and Epitaxy
Author: Ivan V Markov
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Technology & Engineering
This is the first-ever textbook on the fundamentals of nucleation, crystal growth and epitaxy. It has been written from a unified point of view and is thus a non-eclectic presentation of this interdisciplinary topic in materials science. The reader is required to possess some basic knowledge of mathematics and physics. All formulae and equations are accompanied by examples that are of technological importance. The book presents not only the fundamentals but also the state of the art in the subject. The second revised edition includes two separate chapters dealing with the effect of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier for down-step diffusion, as well as the effect of surface active species, on the morphology of the growing surfaces. In addition, many other chapters are updated accordingly. Thus, it serves as a valuable reference book for both graduate students and researchers in materials science. Contents:Crystal — Ambient Phase EquilibriumNucleationCrystal GrowthEpitaxial Growth Readership: Graduate students, academics and researchers in materials engineering, microelectronics, new materials, semiconductors and related areas. Keywords:Nucleation;Epitaxy;Crystal Surfaces;Surface Structure;Crystal Growth;Misfit Dislocations;Thin Solid Films;Wetting;Surface Diffusion;Silicon
This book is the second in a series of scientific textbooks designed to cover advances in selected research fields from a basic and general viewpoint, so that only limited knowledge is required to understand the significance of recent developments. Further assistance for the non-specialist is provided by the summary of abstracts in Part 2, which includes many of the major papers published in the research field. Crystal Growth of Semiconductor Materials has been the subject of numerous books and reviews and the fundamental principles are now well-established. We are concerned chiefly with the deposition of atoms onto a suitable surface - crystal growth - and the generation of faults in the atomic structure during growth and subsequent cooling to room temperature - crystal defect structure. In this book I have attempted to show that whilst the fundamentals of these processes are relatively simple, the complexities of the interactions involved and the individuality of different materials systems and growth processes have ensured that experimentally verifiable predictions from scientific principles have met with only limited success - good crystal growth remains an art. However, recent advances, which include the reduction of growth temperatures, the reduction or elimination of reactant transport variables and the use of better-controlled energy sources to promote specific reactions, are leading to simplified growth systems.
Fiber Crystal Growth from the Melt reviews the growth, modelling, characterization and application of single crystal fibers. Due to their very large length-to-diameter ratio together with perfect crystallographic structure and chemical homogeneity, such fibers have mechanical and physical properties that approach the theoretical values. Fukuda explains how their ultra-high strength enables their application as reinforcing agents in structural components. And he elucidates how and why fiber crystals are particularly well suited for wave guiding, tunable narrow-band filters and nonlinear optics and for the generation of green, blue and violet wavelenghts, and also as micro lasers and laser modulators.
Almost thirty years after the remarkable monograph of K. Zanio and the numerous conferences and articles dedicated since that time to CdTe and CdZnTe, after all the significant progresses in that field and the increasing interest in these materials for several extremely attractive industrial applications, such as nuclear detectors and solar cells, the edition of a new enriched and updated monograph dedicated to these two very topical II-VI semiconductor compounds, covering all their most prominent, modern and fundamental aspects, seemed very relevant and useful. Detailed coverage of the main topics associated with the very topical II-VI semiconductor compound CdTe and its alloy CZT Review of the CdTe recent developments Fundamental background of many topics clearly introduced and exposed
Semiconductors and dielectrics are two essential materials found in cell phones and computers, for example, and both are manufactured by growing crystals. Edited by the organizers of the International Workshop on Crystal Growth Technology, this ready reference is essential reading for materials scientists, chemists, physicists, computer hardware manufacturers, engineers, and those working in the chemical and semiconductor industries. They have assembled an international team of experts who present the current challenges, latest methods and new applications for producing these materials necessary for the electronics industry using bulk crystal growth technology. From the contents: * General aspects of crystal growth technology * Compound semiconductors * Halides and oxides * Crystal growth for sustaining energy * Crystal machining