Phraseology has been acquiring increasing relevance in the fields of linguistics, lexicography and language teaching. This volume brings together data from a variety of sources to arrive at a better understanding and description of various types of 'phrases' and 'phraseological units' as used in 'real' language. The different approaches and objectives of the papers attest to the pervasiveness of phraseology in different languages, sub-languages and registers. The role of different types of corpora is highlighted and native speakers' expectations, culture-specific factors, context-dependent choices and genre specifications are explored.
This is a state-of-the-art Guide to the fascinating world of the lexicon and its description in various types of dictionaries. A team of experts brings together a solid Introduction to Lexicography and leads you through decision-making processes step-by-step to compile and design dictionaries for general and specific purposes. The domains of lexicography are outlined and its specific terminology is explained in the Glossary. Each chapter provides ample suggestions for further reading. Naturally, electronic dictionaries, corpus analysis, and database management are central themes throughout the book. The book also "introduces" questions about the many types of definition, meaning, sense relations, and stylistics. And that is not all: those afraid to embark on a dictionary adventure will find out all about the pitfalls in the chapters on Design. A Practical Guide to Lexicography introduces and seduces you to learn about the achievements, unexpected possibilities, and challenges of modern-day lexicography.
Long regarded as a peripheral issue, phraseology is now taking centre stage in a wide range of fields. This recent explosion of interest undoubtedly has a great deal to do with the development of corpus linguistics research, which has both demonstrated the key role of phraseological expressions in language and provided researchers with automated methods of extraction and analysis. The aim of this volume is to take stock of current research in phraseology from a variety of perspectives: theoretical, descriptive, contrastive, cultural, lexicographic and computational. It contains overview chapters by leading experts in the field and a series of case studies focusing on a wide range of multiword units: collocations, similes, idioms, routine formulae and recurrent phrases. The volume is an invitation for experienced phraseologists to look at the field with different eyes and a useful introduction for the many researchers who are intrigued by phraseology but need help in finding their way in this rich but complex domain.
Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, University of Hannover (Englisches Seminar), course: Hauptseminar Corpora and Language Teaching, 40 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The use of corpora has expanded linguistic research possibilities, revolutionized theoretical concepts of language by applying empirical methods, and changed the face of applied linguistics. Although corpora are a tremendous asset to lexicography, translation studies, cultural studies and even to forensics, an awareness of their benefits has not fully arrived in the field of language teaching, yet. While insights from corpora linguistics have led to the development of a new and improved generation of dictionaries, most teaching materials for teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) have been largely unaffected in this respect, and are regrettably still based on old conventions and on the intuition of course book designers. This unfortunate fact is the starting point for the term paper at hand, which investi-gates the high frequency nouns day, money and way in two corpora in order to compare their authentic use by native speakers to their illustration in German teaching materials. Its focus is set on phraseology and frequency to find out if these nouns are adequately represented, or if an amendment of teaching materials is necessary. The spoken part of the British National Corpus (BNC spoken) serves as the basis of this analysis, due to the fact that German language teaching policy favours a communicative approach aiming at the development of communicative competence and fluency in spoken English. The BNC findings are juxtaposed to the results of an analysis of the German English as a Foreign Language Textbook Corpus (GEFL TC), a corpus comprising two school book series. Additionally, the nouns ́ introduction and presentation in the German English G 2000 textbook series are explored. Finally, as one approach to investigate the teaching materials for advanced learners, the respective entries are checked in three dictionaries aiming at this target group, namely the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, the Macmillan Dictionary for Advanced Learners and the Oxford Advanced Learners ́ Dictionary of Current English. The paper will first provide the theoretical background for the analysis, and will explain its concept and methods. Subsequently, it will focus on the analysis ́ results and will propose improvements to textbook design. Last but not least, it presents Data Driven Learning (DDL) as corpus-based complement of course books and devises six exercises, based on the corpora findings of the BNC spoken, to exemplify it.
Mastering the vocabulary of a foreign language is one of the most daunting tasks that language learners face. The immensity of the task is underscored by the realisation that it is not only single words but also numerous standardised phrases (idioms, collocations, etc.) that need to be acquired. There is thus a clear need for instructional methods that help learners tackle this task, and yet few proposals for vocabulary instruction have so far gone beyond techniques for rote-learning and familiar means of promoting of noticing. The reason for this is that vocabulary and phraseology have long been assumed arbitrary. The volumeoffers a long-overdue alternative by exploring and exploiting the presence of linguistic 'motivation' - or, systematic non-arbitrariness - in the lexicon. The first half of the volume reports ample empirical evidence of the pedagogical effectiveness of presenting vocabulary to learners as non-arbitrary. The data reported indicate that the proposed instructional methods can benefit when both the nature of the target lexis and the basic cognitive orientations of particular learners are taken into account. The first half of the book mostly targets lexis that has already attracted a fair amount of attention from Cognitive Linguists in the past (e.g. phrasal verbs and figurative idioms). The second half broadens the scope considerably by revealing the non-arbitrariness of diverse other lexical patterns, including collocations and word partnerships generally. This is achieved by recognising some long-neglected dimensions of linguistic motivation - etymological and phonological motivation, in particular. Concrete suggestions are made for putting the non-arbitrary nature of words and phrases to good use in instructed language learning. The volumeis therefore of interest not only to applied linguists and researchers in Second Language Acquisition/Foreign Language Teaching, but also to second and foreign language teaching professionals.
This study represents the first critical examination of the contexts and ways in which idioms and fixed expressions of two or more words (phraseological units) such as let sleeping dogs lie, try one's luck or at hand were collected, commented upon and also analysed by English language scholars between about 1440 and 1800. The large-scale investigation surveys theoretical and practical approaches including proverb studies, treatises on rhetoric and style, foreign-language teaching, collections of phrases, bilingual and monolingual lexicography, translation, universal and philosophical language schemes, shorthand systems and English grammar books. This pioneering study is intended to contribute to the formation of English historical phraseology as a new subdiscipline in English linguistics.
Phraseological Units: basic concepts and their applicationPhraseology, an established concept in central and eastern Europe, has in recent years received increasing attention in the English-speaking world. It has long been clear to language learners and teachers that a native speaker's competence in a language goes well beyond a lexico-semantic knowledge of the individual words and the grammatical rules for combining them into sentences; linguistic competence also includes a familiarity with restricted collocations (like break the rules), idioms (like spill the beans in a non-literal sense) and proverbs (like Revenge is sweet), as well as the ability to produce or understand metaphorical interpretations. The first five papers of this volume set out to define the basic phraseological concepts collocation, idiom, proverb, metaphor and the related one of compound (-word). The remaining six papers explore a series of issues involving analytic, quantitative, computational and lexicographic aspects of phraseological units. The volume, as a whole, is a comprehensive and comprehensible introduction to this blossoming field of linguistics.
Some Implications for Language Learning and Dictionary Making
Author: Peter Andrew Howarth
Publisher: de Gruyter
Category: Academic writing
This study examines the use of prefabricated language (conventional lexical collocations) in the production of native and non-native writers of English. It first develops a framework for the description of restricted collocations and then reviews experimental research into the psycholinguistic processing of prefabricated language. Computer-based corpora of native and advanced non-native academic writing are analysed to discover to what extent and how such collocations are used in formal written English. Pedagogical implications are then considered, and the final part of the study examines the selection and presentation of restricted collocations in general and phraseological dictionaries for learners. The conclusion suggests that advanced learners need specialist collocational dictionaries, and the results of this research help to establish principles for the design of such dictionaries.