The first in-depth reference in the field that combines scientific knowledge with philosophical inquiry, The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia is a two-volume set that brings together an international team of leading scholars to provide over 130 entries on the essential concepts in the philosophy of science. The areas covered include: biology chemistry epistemology and metaphysics physics psychology and mind the social sciences key figures in the combined studies of science and philosophy. The essays represent the most up-to-date philosophical thinking on timeless scientific topics such as: determinism, explanation, laws of nature, perception, individuality, time, and economics as well as timely topics like adaptation, conservation biology, quantum logic, consciousness, evolutionary psychology, and game theory.
This Very Short Introduction provides a concise overview of the main themes of contemporary philosophy of science. Beginning with a short history of science to set the scene, Samir Okasha goes on to investigate the nature of scientific reasoning, scientific explanation, revolutions in science, and theories such as realism and anti-realism. He also looks at philosophical issues in particular sciences.
How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully "objective?" What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
The traditional topics of the "philosophy of nature" — space, time, causality, the structure of the universe — are overwhelmingly present in our modern scientific theories. This book traces the complex paths that discussion of these topics has followed, from Plato and Aristotle, through Descartes, Leibniz, Kant and other great thinkers, right up to the relativistic cosmologies and the grand unified theories of contemporary science. In the light of this historical development, it becomes clear that modern science gives us not only a technological power over the world, but also a deeper understanding of physical reality. In this sense, science could be regarded as an heir to the traditional "philosophy of nature". Moreover, the reader will learn why science itself deserves to be the subject of philosophical reflection.
This handbook provides both an overview of state-of-the-art scholarship in philosophy of science, as well as a guide to new directions in the discipline. Section I contains broad overviews of the main lines of research and the state of established knowledge in six principal areas of the discipline, including computational, physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, as well as general philosophy of science. Section II covers what are considered to be the traditional topics in the philosophy of science, such as causation, probability, models, ethics and values, and explanation. Section III identifies new areas of investigation that show promise of becoming important areas of research, including the philosophy of astronomy and astrophysics, data, complexity theory, neuroscience, simulations, post-Kuhnian philosophy, post-empiricist epistemology, and emergence. Most chapters are accessible to scientifically educated non-philosophers as well as to professional philosophers, and the contributors - all leading researchers in their field -- bring diverse perspectives from the North American, European, and Australasian research communities. This volume is an essential resource for scholars and students.
By combining excerpts from key historical writings with commentary by experts, Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology provides a comprehensive history of the philosophy of science from ancient to modern times. Provides a comprehensive history of the philosophy of science, from antiquity up to the 20th century Includes extensive commentary by scholars putting the selected writings in historical context and pointing out their interconnections Covers areas rarely seen in philosophy of science texts, including the philosophical dimensions of biology, chemistry, and geology Designed to be accessible to both undergraduates and graduate students
Originally published as Scientific Research, this pair of volumes constitutes a fundamental treatise on the strategy of science. Part I of Philosophy of Science offers a preview of the scheme of science and the logical and semantical tools that will be used throughout the work. The account of scientific research begins with part II, where Bunge discusses formulating the problem to be solved, hypothesis, scientific law, and theory.
Acknowledgments. . . Preface. . 1. The Rapprochement Between History, Philosophy and Science Education. 1. 2. Historical Debates About the Science Curriculum. 11. . Natural Philosophy in the Curriculum. 12. . US Science Education to the 1950s. 13. . 1950s National Science Foundation Curricula. 15. . British Curricular Reform. 20. . Inquiry Learning and the Need for History and Philosophy of Science. 25. 3. Contemporary Curricular Developments. 29. . Science Literacy and the 1980s Crisis. 29. . The Responsibility of Schools. 33. . Project 2061. 35. . British National Curriculum. 45. . Science-Technology-Society Curricula. 46. 4. History of Science in the Curriculum. 49. . Reasons for History. 49. . History in US Science Curricula. 54. . History in British Science Curricula. 57. . History in Continental Science Curricula. 59. . Teaching About Air Pressure: The Contrast Between Historical and Professional Approaches. 60. . Metaphysics and Physics in the Science of Air Pressure. 64. . How to Introduce History. 70. . Opposition to History. 71. . A Defense of History. 77. 5. Philosophy in the Curriculum. 83. . Science and Philosophy. 84. . Philosophy in the Science Curriculum. 86. . Logic and Scientific Reasoning. 88. . Rationality in Science and in Science Classrooms. 93. . Ernst Mach: Philosopher, Scientist and Educator. 95. . Thought Experiments in Science. 100. . Thought Experiments and Science Education. 103. . Ethics and Science Education. 105. . Feminism and Science Education. 106. 6. History and Philosophy in the Classroom: The Case of Pendulum Motion. 109. . The Pendulum and the Science of Motion. 109. . Galileo and the Textbook. 110. . Galileo's Account of Pendulum Motion. 112. . Empirical Problems with Galileo's Account. 116. . Philosophical Problems with Galileo's Account. 118. . Post-Galileo Developments. 121. . A Comparison: Millikan and Ehrenhaft. 123. . Some Epistemological Lessons. 124. . Some Pedagogical Lessons. 131. 7. Constructivism and Science Education. 137. . What is Constructivism?. 138. . Epistemological Commitments. 139. . Ontological Commitments. 141. . Constructivist Teaching Practice. 143. . Constructivism and Inquiry Learning. 146. . Radical Constructivist Theory. 148. . Constructivism and Relativism. 158. 8. What is Science? Realism and Empiricism. 163. . Platonic Empiricism and Aristotelian Realism. 164. . Copernican and Galilean Realism and Osiander's Empiricism. 165. . Newton's Realism and Berkeley's Empiricism. 167. . Planck's Realism and Mach's Empiricism. 170. . Some Philosophical Considerations. 174. 9. Multicultural Science Education. 179. . Criticism of Science Education. 179. . The Universalist Tradition. 181. . Epistemology and Multicultural Science Education. 184. . Some Traditional Non-Western Metaphysics. 186. . What is Good Science?. 190. . History of Science and Multiculturalism. 192. . The Multiscience Thesis. 195. 10. Teacher Education. 199. . History and Philosophy of Science in Teacher Education. 200. . What Type of Course?. 202. . Teachers' Epistemology. 204. . Analogy, Metaphor and Scientific Thinking. 205. . History of Science and the Psychology of Learning. 208. . Idealizations in Science and the Learning of Science. 211. . Notes. 215. . References. 235. . Further Reading. 273. . Addresses. 275. . Index. 277.
This book helps you provide a well-rounded doctoral curriculum. The philosophy of science is essential to the core of doctoral study in nursing. This text presents historical and contemporary thinking on this significant subject. Readers will find a wealth of information from a variety of philosophers and conceptualizers of Western science. The text's approach stimulates analysis and reflection for enhanced learning. Coverage straddles the balance between nurse and non-nurse philosophers with discussion and reflective questions, and includes thoughts about nursing as a science and an art. Students will learn to recognize the connection between an understanding of philosophic inquiry and scientific investigation -- or research -- in nursing. Compatibility: BlackBerry® OS 4.1 or Higher / iPhone/iPod Touch 2.0 or Higher /Palm OS 3.5 or higher / Palm Pre Classic / Symbian S60, 3rd edition (Nokia) / Windows Mobile™ Pocket PC (all versions) / Windows Mobile Smartphone / Windows 98SE/2000/ME/XP/Vista/Tablet PC