The basis of Muslim philosophy and science is the instruction embedded in the Quran. At an early date this tradition was enlarged and strengthened by the infiltration into Muslim culture of Greek philosophy and science through the translation of Greek classics by Muslims. The Indian tradition of thought also made its contribution. This book traces the development and interaction of these strands in Muslim thinking. The author is concerned to show both how philosophy and science are related to specifically religious thought, and how they have made distinctive contributions to method and discovery.
In the history of philosophy, few topics are so relevant to today's cultural and political landscape as philosophy in the Islamic world. Yet, this remains one of the lesser-known philosophical traditions. In this Very Short Introduction, Peter Adamson explores the history of philosophy among Muslims, Jews, and Christians living in Islamic lands, from its historical background to thinkers in the twentieth century. Introducing the main philosophical themes of the Islamic world, Adamson integrates ideas from the Islamic and Abrahamic faiths to consider the broad philosophical questions that continue to invite debate: What is the relationship between reason and religious belief? What is the possibility of proving God's existence? What is the nature of knowledge? Drawing on the most recent research in the field, this book challenges the assumption of the cultural decline of philosophy and science in the Islamic world by demonstrating its rich heritage and overlap with other faiths and philosophies.
Peter Adamson presents the first full history of philosophy in the Islamic world for a broad readership. He traces its development from early Islam to the 20th century, ranging from Spain to South Asia, featuring Jewish and Christian thinkers as well as Muslim. Major figures like Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides are covered in great detail, but the book also looks at less familiar thinkers, including women philosophers. Attention is also given to thephilosophical relevance of Islamic theology (kalam) and mysticism--the Sufi tradition within Islam, and Kabbalah among Jews--and to science, with chapters on disciplines like optics and astronomy. The first partof the book looks at the blossoming of Islamic theology and responses to the Greek philosophical tradition in the world of Arabic learning, the second discusses philosophy in Muslim Spain (Andalusia), and a third section looks in unusual detail at later developments, touching on philosophy in the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam provides both an overview and a comprehensive and detailed survey of the main features of philosophy, science, medicine and technology in the Muslim world. The level of entries are scholarly, based on primary and secondary sources, and aimed at advanced students of Islamic philosophy and science. The selection of entries as well as their content reflect the highest academic standards and most recent research in the field, providing scholars and advanced students with in-depth surveys on the most important issues in the study of these topics, serving as the authoritative reference work on this important area of research.
Shaykh Ahmed Raza Khan (1856-1921) is an Indian, Sunni, Hanafi, Maturidi, and a Sufi scholar who is recognized as the leader of Ahle Sunnah Wal Jammat in the subcontinent. His following dominates the social religious domain of the Muslims of several countries around the world including, especially India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the UK, Africa, and others. This book introduces Shaykh Ahmed Raza Khan as the last polymath of the Islamic world by contextualizing his encyclopedic academic contribution in the modern context. By venturing to write in more than 56 branches of knowledge like Islamic Jurisprudence, Hadith, Quran translation, Mathematics, Astronomy, Philosophy, Theology, Politics, Physics, Chemistry, literature, poetry, and so on, therefore, representing the last polymath of the Islamic world. The book, also, for the first time provides the known list of works in the English language along with a synopsis. The book aims to de-construct the popular notion about his personality and put his contribution in front of modern science and the political changes the last century has gone through. This analogy highlights the importance and value of his argument that was proposed during the First World War in British India. That how he single-handedly defended the Islamic creed from Wahabism and the challenges posed by modern science. This book will be a paradigm shift in understanding the Islamic intellectual history in the 20th century.
Islamic Science East and West : Homage to Professor J. M. Millàs Vallicrosa
Author: Emilia Calvo
Publisher: Edicions Universitat Barcelona
On the occasion of the 75th +1 anniversary of the publication of Prof. J. M. Millàs Vallicrosa’s seminal work Assaig d’història de les idees físiques i matemàtiques a la Catalunya medieval by the Institut d'Estudis Catalans, the Commission on the History of Science and Technology in Islamic Societies (International Union on History and Philosophy of Science), the Grup Millàs Vallicrosa d’Història de la Ciència Àrab (Universitat de Barcelona) and the Societat Catalana d’Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica (Institut d’Estudis Catalans) organized a conference entitled “A Shared Legacy: Islamic Science East and West”. At this conference, the Islamic Scientific Manuscripts Initiative, a new joint project for the study of manuscripts, was presented. .Although the papers published in this volume deal with a mixture of subjects and disciplines - astronomical instruments, planetary models, geometry, medicine, miqat, technology and cartography - they all have the transmission of knowledge between the two shores of the Mediterranean as a common underlying thread...Amb motiu del 75è + 1 aniversari de la publicació del llibre Assaig d’història de les idees físiques i matemàtiques a la Catalunya medieval (IEC), la Commission on the History of Science and Technology in Islamic Societies (CHSTIS/IUPHS), el Grup Millàs Vallicrosa d’Història de la Ciència Àrab de la Universitat de Barcelona (UB) i la Societat Catalana d’Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica (SCHCT) -filial de l’Institut d’Estudis Catalans- organitzaren el congrés A Shared Legacy. Islamic Science East and West (Un llegat compartit: ciència islàmica a orient i occident). .Am motiu d’aquesta trobada s’han recopilat els articles que conté aquest volum tracten de temes variats –instruments astronòmics, models planetaris, geometria, medicina, tecnologia, cartografia, etc.- que tenen com a nexe en comú la transmissió del coneixement entre les dues ribes de la Mediterrània.
This volume situates itself within the context of the rapidly growing interdisciplinary field that is dedicated to the study of the complex interactions between science and religion. It presents an innovative approach insofar as it addresses the Eurocentrism that is still prevalent in this field. At the same time it reveals how science develops in the space that emerges between the ‘local’ and the ‘global’. The volume examines a range of themes central to the interaction between science and religion: ‘Eastern’ thought within ‘Western’ science and religion and vice versa, and revisits thinkers who sought to integrate ‘Eastern’ and ‘Western’ thinking. It studies Zen Buddhism and its relation to psychotherapy, Islamic science, Vedantic science, atheism in India, and Darwinism, offering in turn new perspectives on a variety of approaches to nature. Part of the Science and Technology Studies series, this volume brings together original perspectives from major scholars from across disciplines and will be of great interest to scholars and students of science and technology studies, history of science, philosophy of science, religious studies, and sociology.
The latest in the series based on the popular History of Philosophy podcast, this volume presents the first full history of philosophy in the Islamic world for a broad readership. It takes an approach unprecedented among introductions to this subject, by providing full coverage of Jewish and Christian thinkers as well as Muslims, and by taking the story of philosophy from its beginnings in the world of early Islam all the way through to the twentieth century. Major figures like Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides are covered in great detail, but the book also looks at less familiar thinkers, including women philosophers. Attention is also given to the philosophical relevance of Islamic theology (kalam) and mysticism—the Sufi tradition within Islam, and Kabbalah among Jews—and to science, with chapters on disciplines like optics and astronomy. The book is divided into three sections, with the first looking at the first blossoming of Islamic theology and responses to the Greek philosophical tradition in the world of Arabic learning. This 'formative period' culminates with the work of Avicenna, the pivotal figure to whom most later thinkers feel they must respond. The second part of the book discusses philosophy in Muslim Spain (Andalusia), where Jewish philosophers come to the fore, though this is also the setting for such thinkers as Averroes and Ibn Arabi. Finally, a third section looks in unusual detail at later developments, touching on philosophy in the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires and showing how thinkers in the nineteenth to the twentieth century were still concerned to respond to the ideas that had animated philosophy in the Islamic world for centuries, while also responding to political and intellectual challenges from the European colonial powers.
Discusses the question of Islamic science in its relation to Islamic civilization as well as the relation between Islam and science today to benefit from those wise Muslim scientists, savants and hakims those thoughts and words are translated and studied in this book--p.xvi
Although Islamic philosophy represents one of the leading philosophical traditions in the world, it has only recently begun to receive the attention it deserves in the non-Islamic world. This important text provides a concise and accessible introduction to the major movements, thinkers and concepts within that tradition, from the foundation of Islam to the present day. Ever since the growth of Islam as a religious and political movement, Muslim thinkers have sought to understand the theoretical aspects of their faith by using philosophical concepts. Leaman outlines this history and demonstrates that, although the development of Islamic philosophy is closely linked with Islam itself, its form is not essentially connected to any particular religion, and its leading ideas and arguments are of general philosophical significance. The author illustrates the importance of Islamic thought within philosophy through the use of many modern examples. He describes and contrasts the three main movements in Islamic philosophy ? Peripatetic, Sufi and Illuminationist ? and examines the Persian as well as the Arabic traditions. Wide coverage is given to key aspects of Islamic philosophy, including epistemology, ontology, politics, ethics and philosophy of language, providing readers with a balanced view of the discipline. The second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout, including the addition of two new chapters on recent debates surrounding Islam's need for an enlightenment, and on the future of Islamic philosophy. The new edition of Islamic Philosophy will continue to be essential reading for students and scholars of the subject, as well as anyone wanting to learn more about one of the most significant and influential philosophical traditions in the world today.
Encyclopaedic Activities in the Pre-eighteenth Century Islamic World
Author: Professor Gerhard Endress
Publisher: Islamic Philosophy, Theology
The contributions in this volume offer the first comprehensive effort to describe and analyse the collection, classification, presentation and methodology of information in the knowledge society of mediæval Islam in the disciplines of religious and legal learning, as well as the rational sciences of Hellenistic origin philosophy, mathematical and medical sciences. The volume begins with a general discussion of the concept of encyclopædia. Successive chapters explore the bases of authority in the institutions of religion and law; biographical literature and handbooks of law; compendia of scientific and philosophical learning based on Iranian and Greek sources; and the more specialised expositions of mathematics and philosophy. The special character of Muslim institutions, their teaching traditions and syllabi is also put into perspective.This is a reference work for the principal genres of enyclopædic outlines and manuals biography, legal handbooks, historiography of knowledge transmission, cosmography, and the philosophical sciences and a major contribution to the literary and intellectual history of scholarly writing in the pre-modern Islamic world.
Ibn al-Nafis, Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection
Author: Nahyan Fancy
The discovery of the pulmonary transit of blood was a ground-breaking discovery in the history of the life sciences, and a prerequisite for William Harvey’s fully developed theory of blood circulation three centuries later. This book is the first attempt at understanding Ibn al-Nafīs’s anatomical discovery from within the medical and theological works of this thirteenth century physician-jurist, and his broader social, religious and intellectual contexts. Although Ibn al-Nafīs did not posit a theory of blood circulation, he nevertheless challenged the reigning Galenic and Avicennian physiological theories, and the then prevailing anatomical understandings of the heart. Far from being a happy guess, Ibn al-Nafīs’s anatomical result is rooted in an extensive re-evaluation of the reigning medical theories. Moreover, this book shows that Ibn al-Nafīs’s re-evaluation is itself a result of his engagement with post-Avicennian debates on the relationship between reason and revelation, and the rationality of traditionalist beliefs, such as bodily resurrection. Breaking new ground by showing how medicine, philosophy and theology were intertwined in the intellectual fabric of pre-modern Islamic societies, Science and Religion in Mamluk Egypt will be of interest to students and scholars of the History of Science, the History of Medicine and Islamic Studies.
God, Life, and the Cosmos: Christian and Islamic Perspectives is the first book in which Christian and Muslim scholars explore the frontiers of science-religion discourse. Leading international scholars present new work on key issues in science and religion from Christian and Islamic perspectives. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into three sections: the first explores the philosophical issues in science-religion discourse; the second examines cosmology; the third analyses the issues surrounding bioethics. One of the first books to explore aspects of science-religion discourse from the perspective of two religious traditions, God, Life, and the Cosmos opens up new vistas to all interested in science and religion, and those exploring contemporary issues in Christianity and Islam.
Al-Kindi is believed by many scholars to be the first Islamic philosopher. At a time when Europe was plunged into the Dark Ages, the Islamic world was experiencing an important time of cultural growth and scientific advancement. While many considered Muslim students of ancient Greek philosophers to be infidels, al-Kindi was able to master the scholarship while interpreting it through his Muslim faith. His conclusions always supported the teachings of Islam, but the methods that he drew upon to reach these conclusions were rooted in science, math, and principles accepted by many other cultures and faiths.