Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: Gérard Said

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 1008

View: 314

Disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are the cause of prominent neurological symptoms including weakness, sensory loss, pain and autonomic dysfunction associated with deficits, morbidity and mortality. These disorders may be primary hereditary or cryptogenic neurologic disorders confined to the PNS or part of the pathology of both the central nervous system and the PNS. Most PNS disorders are secondary to other system disorders and may be responsive to treatment of the primary disease. Important advances have been obtained in several areas including molecular genetics, biochemistry, immunology, morphology and physiology that have enhanced our understanding of the causes and consequences of damage to peripheral nerve. Understanding of both these groups of PNS diseases has greatly expanded over recent years and has led to important advances of treatment both to protect and to repair damages of peripheral nerve. This volume provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of examination, diagnosis and treatment of these very diverse disorders and will be of interest to both the research and clinical neuroscience and neurology communities. Covers both hereditary and cryptogenic neurologic disorders Includes advances in the basic science of PNS from molecular genetics, biochemistry, immunology, morphology and physiology Detailed coverage of neuropathy in connective tissue disorders, infectious disorders, metabolic disorders and malignancy

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Pathology and Genetics

Author: Jean-Michel Vallat

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 560

Peripheral Nerve Disorders: Pathology and Genetics is adefinitive, clinically-oriented guide to the pathology ofperipheral nerve disorders. These commonly seen neurological challenges have many causes andaccurate diagnosis is often necessary via pathological analysis.New techniques exploiting molecular biological knowledge haveopened up new vistas to understanding the pathogenesis of thesedisorders, and hence their effective management. This new title takes a disease-oriented approach to understandingthe pathology of these conditions. It combines classical andcontemporary techniques to enable practitioners in neurology andneuropathology to better understanding of the disease processesunderlying patients? presentations and to formulateappropriate management plans. Peripheral Nerve Disorders: Pathology and Genetics is avaluable resource for neurologists, neuropathologists,pathologists, neurobiologists and geneticists.

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Chapter 8. Imaging of the peripheral nervous system

Author: Guido Stoll

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 1008

View: 888

This chapter summarizes progress in the evaluation of peripheral nerve (PN) lesions and disorders by imaging techniques encompassing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nerve ultrasound (US). Due to the radiation exposure and limited sensitivity in soft tissue contrast, computed-tomography (CT) plays no significant role in the diagnostic work-up of PN disorders. MRI and US are complementary techniques for the evaluation of peripheral nerves, each having particular advantages and disadvantages. Nerve injury induces intrinsic MRI signal alterations on T2-weighted sequences in degenerating or demyelinating nerve segments as well as in corresponding muscle groups exhibiting denervation which can be exploited diagnostically. Nerve US is based on changes in the nerve echotexture due to tumor formation or focal enlargement caused by entrapment or inflammation. Both MRI and US provide morphological information on the precise site and extent of nerve injury. While US has the advantage of easy accessibility, providing images with superior spatial resolution at low cost, MRI shows better soft tissue contrast and better image quality for deep-lying nerve structures since imaging is not hindered by bone. Recent advances have remarkably increased spatial resolution of both MRI and US making imaging indispensible for the elucidation of causes of nerve compression, peripheral nerve tumors, and focal inflammatory conditions. Both MRI and US further guide neurosurgical exploration and can simplify treatment. Importantly, imaging can reveal treatable conditions even in the absence of gross electrophysiological alterations, illustrating its increasing role in clinical practice. In experimental settings, novel molecular and cellular MRI contrast agents allow in-vivo assessment of nerve regeneration as well as monitoring of neuroinflammation. Depending on further clinical development, contrast-enhanced MRI has the potential to follow cellular responses over time in vivo and to overcome the current limitations of histological assessment of nerve afflictions. Further advances in contrast-enhanced US has the potential for developing into a tool for the assessment of nerve blood perfusion, paving the way for better assessments of ischemic neuropathies.

Diagnosis and Management of Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: Jerry R. Mendell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 720

View: 590

Peripheral neuropathies represent a challenging subject for most physicians. This is an up-to-date, comprehensive, and readable book on peripheral neuropathies that includes concise information on the clinical, electrophysiological, pathological, pathogenic, and treatment aspects of the most important disorders. New molecular and serologic diagnostic tests are discussed. Sections are devoted to nerve and skin biopsy techniques and findings, quantitative sensory and autonomic reflex tests. Case examples are used liberally throughout the text. The editors: Mendell, Kissel, and Cornblath are experienced clinicians that bring complementary knowledge to each of the subjects. Additional authors have been handpicked for specific topics which add to the value of the edition.

Disorders of Peripheral Nerves

Author: Herbert H. Schaumburg

Publisher: F. A. Davis Company

ISBN:

Category: Nerfs périphériques

Page: 248

View: 138

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Chapter 1. Prelude to the peripheral neuropathies

Author: Arthur K. Asbury

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 1008

View: 282

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Chapter 46. Peripheral neuropathy in the elderly

Author: Miki Suzuki

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 1008

View: 910

Peripheral neuropathy is an important factor of disability in the elderly, which is significant now that up to 20% of the population is older than 60 years in industrialized countries. Potentially treatable neuropathies including primary inflammatory polyneuropathies and systemic disorders, especially vasculitic neuropathies, are as common in this age group as in younger patients. Neuropathies associated with diabetes, malignancy, and monoclonal gammopathies are even more common in these patients. It is thus essential to identify the causes of these neuropathies in this group of patients and treat them whenever feasible.

Basic Principles of Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: Seyed Mansoor Rayegani

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 290

View: 545

Peripheral nerve disorders are comprising one of the major clinical topics in neuromusculoskeletal disorders. Sharp nerve injuries, chronic entrapment syndromes, and peripheral neuropathic processes can be classified in this common medical topic. Different aspects of these disorders including anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, injury mechanisms, and different diagnostic and management methods need to be addressed when discussing this topic. The goal of preparing this book was to gather such pertinent chapters to cover these aspects.

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Chapter 48. Recessively transmitted predominantly motor neuropathies

Author: Yeşim Parman

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 1008

View: 114

Recessively transmitted predominantly motor neuropathies are rare and show a severe phenotype. They are frequently observed in populations with a high rate of consanguineous marriages. At least 15 genes and six loci have been found to be associated with autosomal recessive CMT (AR-CMT) and X-linked CMT (AR-CMTX) and also distal hereditary motor neuronopathy (AR-dHMN). These disorders are genetically heterogeneous but the clinical phenotype is relatively homogeneous. Distal muscle weakness and atrophy predominating in the lower extremities, diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes, distal sensory loss, and pes cavus are the main clinical features of this disorder with occasional cranial nerve involvement. Although genetic diagnosis of some of subtypes of AR-CMT are now available, rapid advances in the molecular genetics and cell biology show a great complexity. Animal models for the most common subtypes of human AR-CMT disease provide clues for understanding the pathogenesis of CMT and also help to reveal possible treatment strategies of inherited neuropathies. This chapter highlights the clinical features and the recent genetic and biological findings in these disorders based on the current classification.

Peripheral Nerve Disorders 2

Author: Arthur K. Asbury

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann Medical

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 316

View: 824

The flow of new information in the eleven years since the publication of the first volume (published in the BIMR series), has long necessitated a new look at peripheral nerve disorders. Thus this new volume emphasises the advances of the past decade and includes information on newly recognized neuropathies, hereditary neuropathies, peripheral nerve dysfunction and therapeutic advances. It has over 20 contributors from the UK, USA and continental Europe.