Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Neurodegeneration

Author: Yuan Luo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 490

Despite the progress being made by researchers, Alzheimer’s disease, along with other age-related neurodegenerative disorders, continues to exact a tremendous toll on our society. However, we are beginning to see a relationship that ties degenerative disorders to oxidative stress and lifestyle, suggesting the possibility for prevention and intervention through changes of individual habits, especially with regard to diet. Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Neurodegeneration brings together expert researchers involved with recent developments across a variety of fields. In looking at causation, prevention, and therapy, they offer contributions addressing these questions: What similarities and differences exist between normal aging and disease-related neurodegeneration in terms of susceptibility to and effects of oxidative stress? How can oxidative stress or its effects be attenuated? Do antioxidants prevent or slow the progress of the disease? Is there any role for natural micronutrients in the attenuation of oxidative stress and prevention of age-related neurodegeneration? Some chapters look at the various ways research is getting to the core of neurodegenerative disease, including the use of proteomics, comparisons to related diseases, and examinations at the cellular and molecular levels. Other chapters focus on specific antioxidants and nutrients cited as being impactful, such as those found in Gingko biloba, green tea, blueberries, and grape seed extract. Researchers in academia, industry, and clinical medicine, as well as students and scholars will find use for this timely collection, either as an introduction to our current understanding of neurodegeneration or as a reference for further research. Clinicians will also benefit, as this book explains the basis for many of the latest approaches to prevention and therapy.

Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Neurodegeneration

Author: Yuan Luo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 326

Despite the progress being made by researchers, Alzheimer’s disease, along with other age-related neurodegenerative disorders, continues to exact a tremendous toll on our society. However, we are beginning to see a relationship that ties degenerative disorders to oxidative stress and lifestyle, suggesting the possibility for prevention and intervention through changes of individual habits, especially with regard to diet. Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Neurodegeneration brings together expert researchers involved with recent developments across a variety of fields. In looking at causation, prevention, and therapy, they offer contributions addressing these questions: What similarities and differences exist between normal aging and disease-related neurodegeneration in terms of susceptibility to and effects of oxidative stress? How can oxidative stress or its effects be attenuated? Do antioxidants prevent or slow the progress of the disease? Is there any role for natural micronutrients in the attenuation of oxidative stress and prevention of age-related neurodegeneration? Some chapters look at the various ways research is getting to the core of neurodegenerative disease, including the use of proteomics, comparisons to related diseases, and examinations at the cellular and molecular levels. Other chapters focus on specific antioxidants and nutrients cited as being impactful, such as those found in Gingko biloba, green tea, blueberries, and grape seed extract. Researchers in academia, industry, and clinical medicine, as well as students and scholars will find use for this timely collection, either as an introduction to our current understanding of neurodegeneration or as a reference for further research. Clinicians will also benefit, as this book explains the basis for many of the latest approaches to prevention and therapy.

Inflammation, Aging, and Oxidative Stress

Author: Stephen C. Bondy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 405

View: 179

The book describes the major degenerative processes and pathologies exacerbated by senescence and how they can be alleviated through retardation of cellular aging. Topics discussed include neurodegenerative disease, protein oxidation, cerebrovascular disease, particle-induced inflammation and cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, ovarian aging, dietary and endogenous anti-oxidants in management of Parkinson’s disease, and effects of exercise on oxidation and inflammation. The nineteen expertly authored chapters are organized into three sections in order to present a complete picture to the reader: Age Related Cellular Events, Role of Inflammatory and Oxidative Processes in Age-Related Diseases, and Retardation of Cellular Aging. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Disease draws from a variety of international perspectives and provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between disease, cell aging, and oxidative stress, as well as potential for preventing or slowing these processes. This installment of Springer’s Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice is ideal for researchers, clinicians, and advanced graduate students in the fields of cardiology, neuroscience, biogerontolgy, and cell biology.

Aging and Age-Related Disorders

Author: Stephen Bondy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 472

View: 963

Features that characterize the aging process include the gradual accumulation of cell damage after prolonged exposure to oxidative and inflammatory events over a lifetime. In addition to the accretion of lesions, the intrinsic levels of pro-oxidant and aberrant immune responses are elevated with age. These adverse events are often further enhanced by the chronic and slow progressing diseases that characterize the senescent brain and cardiovascular system. The incidence of some disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular diseases are sufficiently prevalent in the extreme elderly that these disorders can arguably be considered "normal". Aging and Aging-Related Disorders examines the interface between normal and pathological aging, and illustrates how this border can sometimes be diffuse. It explores and illustrates the processes underlying the means by which aging becomes increasingly associated with inappropriate levels of free radical activity and how this can serve as a platform for the progression of age-related diseases. The book provides chapters that examine the interactive relationship between systems in the body that can enhance or sometimes even limit cellular longevity. In addition, specific redox mechanisms in cells are discussed. Another important aspect for aging discussed here is the close relationship between the systems of the body and exposure to environmental influences of oxidative stress that can affect both cellular senescence and a cell’s nuclear DNA. What may be even more interesting to note is that these external stressors are not simply confined to illnesses usually associated with aging, but can be evident in maturing and young individuals. A broad range of internationally recognized experts have contributed to this book. Their aim is to successfully highlight emerging knowledge and therapy for the understanding of the basis and development of aging–related disorders.

The Role of Oxidative Stress in Neuronal Death

Author: Irene Ceballos-Picot

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 203

View: 399

This book examines current knowledge and recent advances in the study of fundamental processes involved in neuronal death, particularly oxidative stress as a causal agent or risk factor. The author presents discussion of oxidative stress in neuronal apoptosis and its role in the neuropathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases exemplified by Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Frontiers in Neurodegenerative Disorders and Aging

Fundamental Aspects, Clinical Perspectives and New Insights

Author: Tomris Özben

Publisher: Ios PressInc

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 291

View: 132

This book brings together some of the best researchers in the field of aging and neurodegenerative diseases and presents up-to-date information concerning new developments in this exciting area of research in quite separate fields of biomedical science. It includes a wide range of issues such as basic and applied concepts, methods, and techniques used in this area. The chapters examine and evaluate our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in these fields such as increased protein oxidation and macromolecular modifications associated with aging. This is a novel strategy for the visualization of ROS-induced protein oxidation and protection by antioxidants in living cells using fluorescent probes, thermochemiluminescence (TCL) methodology for determination of the oxidative status of biological systems in experimental and clinical setups, protein degradation, proteasome inactivation observed in the aging process or caused by oxidative stress. Other topics addressed are the oxidative stress theory of aging, oxidation and removal of protein aggregates in neurodegeneration, causes and consequences of oxidative stress in Alzheimers disease, assessment of antioxidants as a therapeutic for neurodegenerative diseases, rafts and prions, the many forms of the prion protein and its subcellular pathways, signaling pathways in protection of neural tissues by ischemic and drug-induced preconditioning, folding of proteins associated with neurodegenerative disorders and aging and neuroprotection in immuno-mediated neurodegeneration from infection to autoimmunity.

The Metabolic-Inflammatory Axis in Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration

Author: Fei Yin

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 492

Impairment of energy metabolism is a hallmark of brain aging and several neurodegenerative diseases, such as the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Age- and disease-related hypometabolism is commonly associated with oxidative stress and they are both regarded as major contributors to the decline in synaptic plasticity and cognition. Neuroinflammatory changes, entailing microglial activation and elevated expression of inflammatory cytokines, also correlate with age-related cognitive decline. It is still under debate whether the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced metabolic deficits or the microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation is the initiator of the cognitive changes in aging and AD. Nevertheless, multiple lines of evidence support the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic inflammation exacerbate each other, and these mechanistic diversities have cellular redox dysregulation as a common denominator. This research topic focuses on the role of a metabolic-inflammatory axis encompassing the bioenergetic activity, brain inflammatory responses and their redox regulation in healthy brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Dynamic interactions among these systems are reviewed in terms of their causative or in-tandem occurrence and how the systemic environment, –e.g., insulin resistance, diabetes, and systemic inflammation–, impacts on brain function.

Diabetes

Chapter 23. Lutein and Oxidative Stress-Mediated Retinal Neurodegeneration in Diabetes

Author: Yoko Ozawa

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 280

View: 581

Although many details remain elusive, recent progress in molecular biology has elucidated the underlying mechanisms of many disease pathogeneses, including some fundamental concepts. One such concept is that oxidative stress is involved in the age-related progression of diseases, as observed in diabetic complications and neurodegenerative diseases. Concordantly, oxidative stress accumulates with time, and can eventually overcome the biological defense systems. Therefore, the progression of the diseases might be prevented or slowed by suppressing oxidative stress. Here we focus on lutein, a plant-derived carotenoid and food factor that can act as an antioxidant in the mammalian retina. In an animal model of diabetes, the continuous intake of lutein suppresses the diabetes-related reduction of synaptophysin protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the retina, and the subsequent visual function impairment. This mechanism overlaps with the renin-angiotensin system. Here we review the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetes-associated retinal neurodegeneration and discuss lutein’s neuroprotective effects.

The Role of Antioxidants in Longevity and Age-Related Diseases

Author: Bee Ling Tan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 240

View: 256

The average life expectancy has increased worldwide in the recent decades. This has presented new challenges as old age brings the onset of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease. Studies and research have shown the potential preventive and therapeutic roles of antioxidants in aging and age-related diseases by inhibiting the formation or disrupting the propagation of free radicals and thus increasing healthy longevity, enhancing immune function, and decreasing oxidative stress. This has made an antioxidant rich diet of increasing importance in battling the detrimental effects of the aging process. “The Role of Antioxidants in Longevity and Age-Related Diseases” is the book that compiles research on antioxidants and their biological mechanisms that mediate age-related diseases. This book covers the major issues linked to antioxidants, aging, and age-related diseases, including changes in organ systems over the lifespan, age-related oxidative stress-induced redox imbalance, inflammaging, implications of inflammation in aging and age-related diseases, and the important role of antioxidant-rich foods in their prevention and treatment of various age-related diseases. For researchers seeking a comprehensive single source on antioxidants and their roles in aging and age-related diseases, this novel text provides an up-to-date overview.

Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Neurological Disorders

Effect of Lifestyle, Genes, and Age

Author: Akhlaq A. Farooqui

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 355

View: 502

Unless new discoveries are made in the prevention or treatment of stroke, Alzheimer's Disease and depression, the number of patients with these diseases is sure to increase dramatically by the year 2050. Thus, developing strategies to retard or delay the onset of stroke, AD and depression these neurological disorders is of critical important. The present monograph will provide current and comprehensive information on the relationship between neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in age-related neurological disorders at the molecular level. The information described in this monograph on lifestyle (diet and exercise), genes and age is intended to facilitate and promote new discoveries for the treatment of age-related neurological disorders.

Aging Mechanisms

Longevity, Metabolism, and Brain Aging

Author: Nozomu Mori

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 439

View: 644

This book brings together the most up-to-date information on recent research results of leading laboratories on aging science in East Asia, particularly in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Starting with a comprehensive overview of various hypotheses on biological mechanisms of aging by Dr. Sataro Goto, each chapter covers broad aspects of the most recent findings in aging-related topics: centenarian studies and genome analysis of progeria, metabolic biochemistry and neurobiology, longevity controls in yeast and nematodes, oxidative stress and calorie restriction, and neurodegeneration mechanisms in Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases, with further potential therapeutic approaches to these age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Also included, in part, is a summary and the outcomes of a scientific discussion forum called the Asian Aging Core for Longevity (AACL) that has been held annually alternating between Japan and Korea during the last decade. This book can serve as a useful resource for finding appropriate collaborators in the areas it covers. The target readership is made up of graduate students and researchers at universities, medical and/or life-science schools, and biomedical and pharmaceutical institutes. Why does aging exist? How do we age? How is each organism’s lifespan determined? These are fundamental questions in the field. We may be still far from achieving a complete view of aging mechanisms, but this book, Aging Mechanisms, offers an excellent opportunity to become familiar with the most updated progress in the biomedical research of aging in Japan and Korea, the two leading nations for human longevity.

Antioxidants and Functional Foods for Neurodegenerative Disorders

Uses in Prevention and Therapy

Author: Abhai Kumar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 472

View: 954

Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, are a growing problem across the world’s aging population. Oxidative stress in the brain plays a central role in a common pathophysiology of these diseases. This book presents scientific research on the potential of antioxidant therapy in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. This book outlines the roles of oxidative stress and diabetes mellitus in neurodegeneration, describes the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders including the roles of environmental pollutants and inflammatory responses, and explores mitochondrial dysfunction. It then describes the protective abilities of antioxidants – including vitamin D, tocotrienol and coenzyme Q10 – against neurodegeneration. The book demonstrates the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets, and highlights the roles of medicinal plants, phytopharmaceuticals, traditional medicines and food nutrients in neuroprotection. Key Features: Explains damage caused by numerous neurodegenerative disorders and the possible protection offered by antioxidants and functional foods. Describes molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration by oxidative stress, advancing age, diabetes and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Demonstrates protection offered by nutraceuticals, antioxidants, botanical extracts and functional foods. The book contains twenty-three chapters divided into six sections written by leading researchers. This book is essential reading for health professionals, dietitians, food and nutrition scientists and anyone wanting to improve their knowledge of etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.

Role of Oxidative Stress in Pathophysiology of Diseases

Author: Pawan K. Maurya

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 297

View: 309

This book illustrates the importance and significance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of various human diseases. The book initially introduces the phenomenon of oxidative stress, basic chemical characteristics of the species involved and summarizes the cellular oxidant and anti-oxidant system and the cellular effects and metabolism of the oxidative stress. In addition, it reviews the current understanding of the potential impact of oxidative stress on telomere shortening, aging, and age-related diseases. It also examines the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Further, the book presents novel technologies for the detection of oxidative stress biomarkers using nanostructure biosensors, as well as in vitro and in vivo models to monitor oxidative stress. Lastly, the book addresses the drug delivery carriers that can help in combating oxidative stress.

Oxidative Neural Injury

Author: Sigrid C. Veasey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 218

View: 907

Twenty-five years ago, Earl R. Stadtman, PhD discovered that specific enzymes regulating metabolism can be inactivated by oxidation [1]. He later showed that age-related oxidative modification contributes, at least in part, to age-related loss of function of the enzymes [2, 3]. Dr. Stadtman broke the ground for a new field of study to discover how oxidative stress contributes in significant ways to age-related cellular dysfunction and protein accumulation and that oxidation in the aging brain influences Alzheimer’s disease, ischemia-reperfusion injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and lifespan [4–6]. Today, his research and mentorship have positively influenced the work of hundreds of scientists in this field. We dedicate this book to Dr. Earl R. Stadtman (1912–2008), in celebration of his passion for science and his superior collaborative and mentorship skills. This book is comprised of three sections. The first describes the valuable roles reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play in cellular biology. The second section provides an overview of redox imbalance injury with effects on mitochondria, signaling, endoplasmic reticular function, and on aging in general. The third section takes these mechanisms to neurodegenerative disorders and provides a state-of-the-art look at the roles redox imbalances play in age-related susceptibility to disease and in the disease processes. In the first section we attempt to answer a question posed by Dr. Stadtman, ‘‘Why have cells selected reactive oxygen species to regulate cell signaling events’’ [7].

Studies on Alzheimer's Disease

Author: Domenico Praticὸ

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 206

This volume systematically reviews the basic science and clinical knowledge of the role of free radicals and antioxidants, collectively known as “oxidative stress,” in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. It describes the most current diagnostic tools, laboratory methods and technology, and suggests ways of prevention and treatment to emphasize the concept of the bench-to-bedside approach. Studies on Alzheimer’s Disease provides thorough coverage of emerging technology and medical applications including discussions of biomarkers and antioxidants as therapeutic agents, and several more relevant aspects. In addition, this book promotes the concept of using biomarkers representative of oxidative stress reactions and free-radical damageand describes the effects of antioxidants in treating disease in clinical trials. This content is invaluable to both researchers and clinicians studying the development of and treating patients with Alzheimer’s Disease.

Antioxidants in Food, Vitamins and Supplements

Prevention and Treatment of Disease

Author: Amitava Dasgupta

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 282

Antioxidants in Food, Vitamins and Supplements bridges the gap between books aimed at consumers and technical volumes written for investigators in antioxidant research. It explores the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of various diseases as well as antioxidant foods, vitamins, and all antioxidant supplements, including herbal supplements. It offers healthcare professionals a rich resource of key clinical information and basic scientific explanations relevant to the development and prevention of specific diseases. The book is written at an intermediate level, and can be easily understood by readers with a college level chemistry and biology background. Covers both oxidative stress-induced diseases as well as antioxidant-rich foods (not the chemistry of antioxidants) Contains easy-to-read tables and figures for quick reference information on antioxidant foods and vitamins Includes a glycemic index and a table of ORAC values of various fruits and vegetables for clinicians to easily make recommendations to patients

Free Radical Pathophysiology

Author: Silvia Alvarez

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Free radicals (Chemistry)

Page: 450

View: 589

Free radicals are defined as any chemical species capable of independent existence, which contains at least one unpaired electron. Molecular divalent oxygen itself is by definition a free radical. The term reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are freely used in the literature. They refer to free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2"-), hydroxyl radical (HO") and nitric oxide (NO), and even to the non-radicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). It has been shown that ROS and RNS are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as mutation, carcinogenesis, aging, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion, and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, the importance of mitochondrial metabolism of these species in pathophysiological events, has been addressed. We believe that the readers of this book will find the real frontline areas of free radical research in pathophysiology. There is a bright future for investigations in this area, and we hope that this book will be helpful to every person interested in free radicals. This book has 24 chapters that are divided into 5 major sections that lead from basic concepts in free radical biology to clinically applied investigations. The book begins with an updated overview of basic principles on oxidative and nitrosative stress (Section 1). It takes us through the concept of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine and nitrated lipids as markers of nitrosative stress, the effect of ferritin on ascorbyl radical content, and ends with the description of the antioxidant network and the relevance of flavanols and procyanidins for disease. Section 2 addresses the importance of mitochondria in pathophysiology. It is reviewed not only the role of mitochondria in cell death and the importance of the uncoupling proteins, but the nitric oxide metabolism and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase from heart, as well. This section ends reviewing the relationship between mitochondrial oxidative stress and the permeability transition. The role of free radicals in inflammatory conditions is described in section 3. By starting with the discussion of the oxygen/nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis and the oxidative stress generated by the exposition to particulate matter, it ends with actualizations on the role of iron and the therapeutic role of melatonin in inflammation and sepsis. Section 4 focuses on the involvement of free radicals in neurodegeneration. The topics discussed includes: the importance of nitric oxide metabolism in neurodegenerative pathways, mitochondrial function in neuronal aging and plasticity, and the role of vitagenes in the cellular stress tolerance during aging and neurodegeneration. The last, but not least section (section 5) returns to the concept of oxidative stress and is discussed within the scope of different pathologies and related processes. This section begins with pathologies as alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity and age related macular degeneration and glaucoma. It ends with the role and importance of oxygen free radicals in liver preconditioning, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and in an experimental model of choline deficiency. Bringing together so many internationally recognized authors was not an easy task. We are grateful to them, who worked very hard to produce reviews of high scientific quality. This concerted effort makes the book an updated reference in the involvement of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in physiological and pathological processes. We are also grateful to Dr. S. G. Pandalai from Transworld Research Network, without whose support this project would have never been completed.

Redox Proteomics

Author: H. Fai Poon

Publisher: Hung Fai Poon

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 332

View: 205

The studies in this book demonstrated that increased oxidative stress in brain play a significant role in age-related cognitive impairment. Moreover, such increased oxidative stress leads to specific protein oxidation in the brain of cognitive impaired subject, thereby leading to cognitive function impairment. Moreover, the functional alterations of the proteins identified by proteomics in this book may leads to impaired metabolism, decline antioxidant system, and damaged synaptic communication. Ultimately, impairment of these processes lead to neuronal damages and cognitive decline. This book also show that several of the up- regulated and oxidized proteins in the brains of normal aging mice identified are known to be oxidized in neurodegenerative diseases as well, suggesting that the expression levels of certain proteins may increase as a compensatory response to oxidative stress. This compensation would allow for the maintenance of proper molecular functions in normal aging brains and protection against neurodegeneration.