A PLANE CRASH IN THE JUNGLE. A LEGENDARY STATESMAN DEAD. A TRAGIC ACCIDENT... OR THE ULTIMATE CONSPIRACY? In 1961, a Douglas DC-6B aeroplane transporting the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjöld, disappeared over the Congolese jungle at the height of the Cold War. Soon afterward, Hammarskjöld was discovered in the smoking wreckage, an Ace of Spades playing card placed on his body. He had been heralded as the Congo's best hope for peace and independence. Now he was dead. The circumstances of that night have remained one of the Cold War's most tightly guarded secrets for decades. Now, with exclusive evidence, investigative journalist Ravi Somaiya finally uncovers the truth, with dark implications for governments and corporations alike.
The Death of Dag Hammarskjöld and the Last Great Mystery of the Cold War
Author: Ravi Somaiya
Publisher: Penguin UK
LONGLISTED FOR THE ALCS GOLD DAGGER FOR NON-FICTION 'One of the mysteries I've long been fascinated by, and I am so grateful that Ravi Somaiya has cracked it open so brilliantly' David Grann, author of Killers of the Flower Moon A PLANE CRASH IN THE JUNGLE. A LEGENDARY STATESMAN DEAD. A TRAGIC ACCIDENT... OR THE ULTIMATE CONSPIRACY? In 1961, a Douglas DC-6B aeroplane transporting the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjöld, disappeared over the Congolese jungle at the height of the Cold War. Soon afterward, Hammarskjöld was discovered in the smoking wreckage, an Ace of Spades playing card placed on his body. He had been heralded as the Congo's best hope for peace and independence. Now he was dead. The circumstances of that night have remained one of the Cold War's most tightly guarded secrets for decades. Now, with exclusive evidence, investigative journalist Ravi Somaiya finally uncovers the truth, with dark implications for governments and corporations alike.
In seeking to examine whether peacekeeping fundamentally changed between the Cold War and post-Cold War periods the author concludes that most peacekeeping operations were flawed due to the failure of UN members to agree upon various matters such as achievable objectives, provision of necessary resources and unrealistic expectations.
During the course of operations, a company of Irish troops was deployed to protect the inhabitants of the village of Jadotville. Not long after deployment, the troops found themselves heavily out-numbered and engaged in a pitched battle with native Congolese soldiers led by white mercenary officers. In addition to the overwhelming odds, the Irish also had to contend with being strafed by a jet and had no airpower or anti-aircraft defences to defend themselves.Appeals for re-supply from UN forces were to no avail. There were a number of attempts by Irish troops in the vicinity to mount a relief operation for their surrounded comrades. However, a mixture of superior fire, physical obstacles and political machinations within the UN led to abject failure. But after numerous rescue attempts failed and the Irish had fought to their last rounds of ammunition and were already using bayonets in hand-to-hand-fighting, Comdt Quinlan decided against the needless bloodshed of his men and surrendered. Though many of the men fought bravely, some going on to be decorated for valour at later stages, they were made to feel inferior within the army. To have served at Jadotville was something to have been ashamed of.
Canada Research Chair in International Relations and Security Studies Jane Boulden
The Oxford Handbook on United Nations Peacekeeping Operations presents an innovative, authoritative, and accessible examination and critique of the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Since the late 1940s, but particularly since the end of the cold war, peacekeeping has been a central part of the core activities of the United Nations and a major process in global security governance and the management of international relations in general. The volume will present a chronological analysis, designed to provide a comprehensive perspective that highlights the evolution of UN peacekeeping and offers a detailed picture of how the decisions of UN bureaucrats and national governments on the set-up and design of particular UN missions were, and remain, influenced by the impact of preceding operations. The volume will bring together leading scholars and senior practitioners in order to provide overviews and analyses of all 65 peacekeeping operations that have been carried out by the United Nations since 1948. As with all Oxford Handbooks, the volume will be agenda-setting in importance, providing the authoritative point of reference for all those working throughout international relations and beyond.
It is generally considered that the UN Security Council has been galvanised since the end of the Cold War. However, the existence and development of armed conflicts remain the reality in the international scene. Is the upsurge in instances of invoking Chapter VII of the UN Charter truly a sign of the invigoration of the Security Councila (TM)s authority or mere evidence of its failure to prevent the aggravation of armed conflicts? To what extent is the Security Council authorised to exercise the peacekeeping power in order to take a more flexible approach to conflict management from an earlier stage of conflict? This book explores the potential of the UN peacekeeping power, placing Article 40 of the UN Charter at the centre of the legal regime governing peacekeeping measures. It traces the origins of peacekeeping measures primarily in the experience of the League of Nations and identifies Article 40 of the Charter as the primary legal basis for, and the legal restraints upon, the exercise of the peacekeeping power. It examines the regulatory framework within which the United Nations, particularly the Security Council, is authorised and may even be required to direct peacekeeping measures to prevent the aggravation of armed conflicts. It suggests that the legal accountability of the Security Council in directing peacekeeping measures will be enhanced by utilising procedural mechanisms for self-regulation
The Irish soldier has never been a stranger to fighting the enemy with the odds stacked against him. The notion of charging into adversity has been a cherished part of Ireland’s military history. In September 1961, another chapter should have been written into the annals, but it is a tale that lay shrouded in dust for years. The men of A Company, Thirty-Fifth Irish Infantry Battalion, arrived in the Congo as a United Nations contingent to help keep the peace. For many it would be their first trip outside their native shores. Some of the troops were teenage boys, their army-issue hobnailed boots still unbroken. They had never heard a shot fired in anger. Others were experienced professional soldiers but were still not prepared for the action that was to take place. Led by Commandant Pat Quinlan, A Company found themselves tasked with protecting the European population at Jadotville, a small mining town in the southern Congolese province of Katanga. It fell to A Company to protect those who would later turn against them. On September 13th, 1961, the bright morning air of Jadotville was shattered by the sound of automatic gunfire. The men of A Company found their morning mass parade interrupted, and within minutes they went from holding rosaries to rifles as they entered the world of combat. This was to be no Srebrenica; though cut off and surrounded, the men of Jadotville held their ground and fought. This is their story.
This work is a critical study of the United Nations and other international and intergovernmental organizations such as The International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, Trilateral Commission, Group of Seven, OPEC, and the Organization of American States. Frederick Gareau presents these international organizations in action. The book goes beyond the description and history of organizations to critically analyze the role of governments, especially the United States, in the functioning of international organizations. The impact of the hegemonic Washington is examined throughout the text. The author uses the casebook method to put intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) in a broad context. Special attention is given to the issues of terrorism, both state terrorism and individual terrorism. This readable book is free of economic and legal jargon and will be a valuable resource to students of international politics and American foreign policy, as well as to the lay reader. A Burnham Publishers book
Rethinking Human Security and Ethics in the Spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld
Author: Carsten Stahn
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
As UN Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjöld shaped many of the fundamental principles and practices of international organisations, such as preventive diplomacy, the ethics of international civil service, impartiality and neutrality. He was also at the heart of the constitutional foundations and principles of the UN. This tribute and critical review of Hammarskjöld's values and legacy examines his approach towards international civil service, agency and value-based leadership, investigates his vision of internationalism and explores his achievements and failures as Secretary-General. It draws on specific conflict situations and strategies such as Suez and the Congo for lessons that can benefit contemporary conflict resolution and modern concepts such as human security and R2P. It also reflects on ways in which actors such as international courts, tribunals and the EU can benefit from Hammarskjöld's principles and experiences in the fields of peace and security and international justice.
Air power for warfighting is a story that's been told many times. Air power for peacekeeping and UN enforcement is a story that desperately needs to be told. For the first-time, this volume covers the fascinating range of aerial peace functions. In rich detail it describes: aircraft transporting vital supplies to UN peacekeepers and massive amounts of humanitarian aid to war-affected populations; aircraft serving as the 'eyes in sky' to keep watch for the world organization; and combat aircraft enforcing the peace. Rich poignant case studies illuminate the past and present use of UN air power, pointing the way for the future. This book impressively fills the large gap in the current literature on peace operations, on the United Nations and on air power generally.
Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work of some 1,700 entries in two volumes. Its scope includes all of Europe and the successor states to the former Soviet Union. The volumes provide a broad coverage of topics, with an emphasis on politics, governments, organizations, people, and events crucial to an understanding of postwar Europe. Also includes 100 maps and photos.
The interior of the old Ford armoured car stank of sweat, blood and acrid smoke. Pat's eyes desperately struggled to focus in the gloom of the biting cordite fog ...On 15 September 1961, Trooper Patrick Mullins was posted missing after the bloody ambush of an Irish UN convoy in a suburb of Elisabethville in the Katanga province of the Congo. The circumstances of that fateful day have remained shrouded in confusion and contradiction for five decades – until now. Missing in Action reveals for the first time how an ill-equipped and heavily out-gunned Irish soldier fought with astonishing courage against heavily armed and ruthless Katangan gendarmes. Through interviews with the survivors and access to military intelligence sources, the truth about Trooper Mullins' heroic last stand and ultimate fate can now be told.
The dramatic true story of a brave young soldier who laid down his life to save a comrade, and the struggle to identify his burial place and repatriate his remains. On 15 September 1961, eighteen year old Trooper Patrick Mullins was posted missing after a bloody ambush of an Irish UN convoy in the Congo. During the fierce gun-fight, Mullins was killed and his body taken as spoils of war by the rebel militia. When Ireland finally ended its UN mission in the Congo Tpr. Mullins' body remained buried in an unknown grave. With the 50th anniversary of his death fast approaching, the Mullins family remains caught in the terrible nightmare of maintaining an empty grave at the foothills of the Galtee Mountains. This fascinating book describes Mullins' story, the struggle to find his body, and the difficulties in bringing it home.
Erik Kennes and Miles Larmer provide a history of the Katangese gendarmes and their largely undocumented role in many of the most important political and military conflicts in Central Africa. Katanga, located in today's Democratic Republic of Congo, seceded in 1960 as Congo achieved independence and the gendarmes fought as the unrecognized state's army during the Congo crisis. Kennes and Larmer explain how the ex-gendarmes, then exiled in Angola, struggled to maintain their national identity and return "home." They take readers through the complex history of the Katangese and their engagement in regional conflicts and Africa's Cold War. Kennes and Larmer show how the paths not taken at Africa's independence persist in contemporary political and military movements and bring new understandings to the challenges that personal and collective identities pose to the relationship between African nation-states and their citizens and subjects.
A fascinating account of a huge Central African country, almost completely unprepared for liberation from colonial rule in 1960 and plunged into the anarchy of factional struggles for central power, against a background of regional separatism. A UN force stepped in to prevent the mineral-rich province of Katanga from breaking away and stayed for nearly four years, after which quarrelling warlords fought for central power, or for or against separatism. In 1965, Mobutu came to power, ruling as a dictator his Single-Party State, until he was finally toppled in 1997 by a Tutsi-backed invasion force led by Kabila.
This book considers the varied roles played by the United Nations in cases where threats to peace are created by civil strife in modernizing societies. These struggles for internal supremacy are viewed by the superpowers and other states as parts of larger racial, anti-colonial, or ideological contests. Through a careful analysis of selected cases-Algeria, Angola, the Congo, Cyprus, the Dominican Republic, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Lebanon, Laos, Yemen, and Vietnam-the author clarifies the legal and political factors limiting the United Nations' effectiveness in containing violence and promoting peaceful change. Originally published in 1967. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
The Cold War and the Mysterious Death of Dag Hammarskjöld
Author: Ravi Somaiya
Publisher: Hachette UK
Category: True Crime
LONGLISTED FOR THE ALCS "GOLD DAGGER" AWARD FOR NON-FICTION CRIME WRITING Uncover the story behind the death of renowned diplomat and UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in this true story of spies and intrigue surrounding one of the most enduring unsolved mysteries of the twentieth century. On September 17, 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld boarded a Douglas DC6 propeller plane on the sweltering tarmac of the airport in Leopoldville, the capital of the Congo. Hours later, he would be found dead in an African jungle with an ace of spades playing card placed on his body. Hammarskjöld had been the head of the United Nations for nine years. He was legendary for his dedication to peace on earth. But dark forces circled him: Powerful and connected groups from an array of nations and organizations—including the CIA, the KGB, underground militant groups, business tycoons, and others—were determined to see Hammarskjöld fail. A riveting work of investigative journalism based on never-before-seen evidence, recently revealed firsthand accounts, and groundbreaking new interviews, The Golden Thread reveals the truth behind one of the great murder mysteries of the Cold War.
Drawing from little explored archives and personal correspondence, chronicles the life of the second secretary general of the United Nations who was killed in 1961 while en route to ceasefire negotiations in the Congo.