Phase I trials are a critical first step in the study of novel cancer therapeutic approaches. Their primary goals are to identify the recommended dose, schedule and pharmacologic behavior of new agents or new combinations of agents and to describe the adverse effects of treatment. In cancer therapeutics, such studies have particular challenges. Due to the nature of the effects of treatment, most such studies are conducted in patients with advanced malignancy, rather than in healthy volunteers. Further, the endpoints of these trials are usually measures adverse effects rather than molecular target or anti-tumor effects. These factors render the design, conduct, analysis and ethical aspects of phase I cancer trials unique. As the only comprehensive book on this topic, Phase I Cancer Clinical Trials is a useful resource for oncology trainees or specialists interested in understanding cancer drug development. New to this edition are chapters on Phase 0 Trials and Immunotherapeutics, and updated information on the process, pitfalls, and logistics of Phase I Trials
Clinical trials are the engine of progress in the development of new drugs and devices for the detection, monitoring, prevention and treatment of cancer. A well conceived, carefully designed and efficiently conducted clinical trial can produce results that change clinical practice overnight, deliver new oncology drugs and diagnostics to the marketplace, and expand the horizon of contemporary thinking about cancer biology. A poorly done trial does little to advance the field or guide clinical practice, consumes precious clinical and financial resources and challenges the validity of the ethical contract between investigators and the volunteers who willingly give their time and effort to benefit future patients. With chapters written by oncologists, researchers, biostatisticians, clinical research administrators, and industry and FDA representatives, Oncology Clinical Trials, provides a comprehensive guide for both early-career and senior oncology investigators into the successful design, conduct and analysis of an oncology clinical trial. Oncology Clinical Trials covers how to formulate a study question, selecting a study population, study design of Phase I, II, and III trials, toxicity monitoring, data analysis and reporting, use of genomics, cost-effectiveness analysis, systemic review and meta-analysis, and many other issues. Many examples of real-life flaws in clinical trials that have been reported in the literature are included throughout. The book discusses clinical trials from start to finish focusing on real-life examples in the development, design and analysis of clinical trials. Oncology Clinical Trials features: A systematic guide to all aspects of the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials in oncology Contributions from oncologists, researchers, biostatisticians, clinical research administrators, and industry and FDA representatives Hot topics in oncology trials including multi-arm trials, meta-analysis and adaptive design, use of genomics, and cost-effectiveness analysis Real-life examples from reported clinical trials included throughout
The second edition of Oncology Clinical Trials has been thoroughly revised and updated and now contains the latest designs and methods of conducting and analyzing cancer clinical trials in the era of precision medicine with biologic agents—including trials investigating the safety and efficacy of targeted therapies, immunotherapies, and combination therapies as well as novel radiation therapy modalities. Now divided into six sections this revamped book provides the necessary background and expert guidance from the principles governing oncology clinical trials to the innovative statistical design methods permeating the field; from conducting trials in a safe and effective manner, analyzing and interpreting the data, to a forward-looking assessment and discussion of regulatory issues impacting domestic, international, and global clinical trials. Considered by many as the gold standard reference on oncology clinical trials in the field, the second edition continues to provide examples of real-life flaws and real-world examples for how to successfully design, conduct and analyze quality clinical trials and interpret them. With chapters written by oncologists, researchers, biostatisticians, clinical research administrators, and industry and FDA representatives, this volume provides a comprehensive guide in the design, conduct, monitoring, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials in oncology. NEW TO THIS EDITION: Outlines how to design clinical trials with and without biomarker testing—including genomics-based “basket” trials, and adaptive trials for all phases during treatment and quality-of-life trials Includes new chapters on immunotherapy trials, radiation therapy trials, multi-arm trials, meta-analysis and adaptive design, use of genomics, dose modifications and use of ancillary treatments in investigational studies, establishing surrogate endpoints, practical issues with correlative studies, cost-effectiveness analysis, and more Comprehensively covers all regulatory aspects in the pursuit of global oncology trials Digital access to the ebook included
Scientists and clinicians seek a new paradigm that could improve the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and overall success rate of cancer clinical trials, while maintaining the highest standards of quality. To explore innovative paradigms for cancer clinical trials and other ways to improve their quality, the National Cancer Policy Forum held a workshop, Improving the Quality of Cancer Clinical Trials, in Washington, DC. The main goals of the workshop were to examine new approaches to clinical trial design and execution that would: (1) better inform decisions and plans of those responsible for developing new cancer therapies (2) more rapidly move new diagnostic tests and treatments toward regulatory approval and use in the clinic (3) be less costly than current trials The resulting workshop summary will serve as input to the deliberations of an Institute of Medicine committee that will develop consensus-based recommendations for moving the field of cancer clinical trials forward.
Clinical trials remain the most important vehicle for improving the care of cancer patients. This text presents the fundamental components and challenges involving clinical investigations. Leading experts discuss the critical issues covering the spectrum of important topics from planning to application. The book has a foreword by Samuel A. Wells, Jr., MD, Professor of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, former Director of the American College of Surgeons and Founder of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group.
The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program has played a key role in developing new and improved cancer therapies. However, the program is falling short of its potential, and the IOM recommends changes that aim to transform the Cooperative Group Program into a dynamic system that efficiently responds to emerging scientific knowledge; involves broad cooperation of stakeholders; and leverages evolving technologies to provide high-quality, practice-changing research.
The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has played an integral role in cancer research and in establishing the standard of care for cancer patients for more than 50 years. Formerly known as the NCI Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program, the NCTN is comprised of more than 2,100 institutions and 14,000 investigators, who enroll more than 20,000 cancer patients in clinical trials each year across the United States and internationally. Recognizing the recent transformative advances in cancer research that necessitate modernization in how cancer clinical trials are run, as well as inefficiencies and other challenges impeding the national cancer clinical trials program, the NCI asked the IOM to develop a set of recommendations to improve the federally funded cancer clinical trials system. These recommendations were published in the 2010 report, A National Cancer Clinical Trials System for the 21st Century: Reinvigorating the NCI Cooperative Group Program. In early 2011, the NCPF and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) held a workshop in which stakeholders discussed the changes they planned to implement in response to the IOM goals and recommendations. Two years later, on February 11-12, 2013, in Washington, DC, the NCPF and ASCO reconvened stakeholders to report on the changes they have made thus far to address the IOM recommendations. At this workshop, representatives from the NCI, the NCTN, comprehensive cancer centers, patient advocacy groups, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), industry, and other stakeholders highlighted the progress that has been made in achieving the goals for a reinvigorated national cancer clinical trials system. Implementing a National Cancer Clinical Trials System for the 21st Century is a summary of that workshop.
Phase I trials are a critical first step in the study of novel therapeutic approaches. They follow years of development in the laboratory, and precede Phase II and III trials where testing of the drug becomes more focused yet is conducted on a wider scale. The primary goals of Phase I trials are to identify the recommended dose, schedule and pharmacologic behaviour of new agents or new combinations of agents, and to describe the adverse effects of treatment. In cancer therapeutics, such studies have particular challenges. In general, because of the nature of the effects of treatment, most studies are conducted in patients with advanced malignancy, rather than in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the endpoints of these trials are usually measures of adverse effects, but increasingly investigators are interested in assessment of the effects of new drugs on their molecular target. These factors render the design, conduct, analysis and ethical aspects of Phase I cancer clinicaltrials unique. This book provides a practical guide to Phase I cancer trials and is appropriate for oncology trainees or specialists interested in understanding cancer drug development. Topics covered include preclinical requirements needed for first-in-man investigation of new agents, principles and statistical design, ethical considerations of Phase I studies, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and studies in special populations. Practical information on protocol development, study activation and conduct, as well as how to write reports of the results, are incorporated. Numerous appendices offer document templates to use in Phase I study development, and examples from actual Phase I trials are interspersed throughout, making this a true 'hands-on' guide. In an exciting time in cancer research, as the number and type of new potential anti-cancer drugs is increasing dramatically, this book provides much needed information on the first stage in getting a drug approved.
In cancer research, a traditional phase II trial is designed as a single-arm trial that compares the experimental therapy to a historical control. This simple trial design has led to several adverse issues, including increased false positivity of phase II trial results and negative phase III trials. To rectify these problems, oncologists and biostatisticians have begun to use a randomized phase II trial that compares an experimental therapy with a prospective control therapy. Randomized Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials explains how to properly select and accurately use diverse statistical methods for designing and analyzing phase II trials. The author first reviews the statistical methods for single-arm phase II trials since some methodologies for randomized phase II trials stem from single-arm phase II trials and many phase II cancer clinical trials still use single-arm designs. The book then presents methods for randomized phase II trials and describes statistical methods for both single-arm and randomized phase II trials. Although the text focuses on phase II cancer clinical trials, the statistical methods covered can also be used (with minor modifications) in phase II trials for other diseases and in phase III cancer clinical trials. Suitable for cancer clinicians and biostatisticians, this book shows how randomized phase II trials with a prospective control resolve the shortcomings of traditional single-arm phase II trials. It provides readers with numerous statistical design and analysis methods for randomized phase II trials in oncology.