Reflecting on two decades of ‘competitiveness-oriented’ urban policies in Europe, this book investigates the current challenges cities face to sustain their economic position and how this can be balanced with social progress and environmental improvements. Complementing previous surveys on local and urban development and competitiveness-based strategies, this volume provides longer term views on the evolution of such policies at the city level, from the personal perspective of city officials in eight European cities. More concretely, it looks at how the urban dimension in EU policies have evolved over time, the kinds of urban policy supported by the EU over the last two decades and how cities have been involved with this process. The book investigates the portfolios of competitiveness-oriented policies which have been developed by European cities and how they see the link between urban/spatial development policies and sustainable competitiveness. Finally the book fleshes out a number of challenges and initiatives taken by the eight European cities and their governments in the face of current challenges in order to pave the way towards more competitive and sustainable urban economies.
This book provides an analysis of European Union pharmaceutical regulation from a policy-making perspective. The focus is on how the often conflicting agendas of the pharmaceutical industry, the EU member states, the European Commission, and consumer interests are reconciled within the context of regulatory outcomes having to serve public health, healthcare and industrial policy needs within the single market. In providing a unique perspective on how and why EU pharmaceutical policy is made, the book will be of interest to academics, students and policy-practitioners interested in EU policy-making, regulation and public policy analysis.
In this probing analysis of the European Union's transnational legal system, Lisa Conant explores the interaction between law and politics. In particular, she challenges the widely held view that the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has, through bold judicial activism, brought about profound policy and institutional changes within the EU's member states. She argues convincingly that this court, like its domestic counterparts, depends on the support of powerful organized interests to gain compliance with its rulings. What, Conant asks, are the policy implications of the ECJ's decisions? How are its rulings applied in practice? Drawing on the rich scholarship on the U.S. Supreme Court, Conant depicts the limits that the ECJ and other tribunals have to face. To illuminate these constraints, she traces the impact of ECJ decisions in four instances concerning market competition and national discrimination. She also proposes ways of anticipating which of this court's legal interpretations are likely to inspire major reforms.Justice Contained closes with a comparative analysis of judicial power, identifying the ECJ as an institution with greater similarities to domestic courts than to international organizations. The book advances a deeper understanding both of the court's contributions to European integration and of the political economy of litigation and reform. --Martin Shapiro, University of California, Berkeley "Choice"
Publisher: Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
Category: Political Science
This publication contains the text of the Treaty, including the protocols and annexes, and final act with declarations, as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004. The Treaty will take effect only on the date of its entry into force (1 November 2006) provided that all the instruments of ratification have been deposited by the contracting parties.