Nanoscale memories are used everywhere. From your iPhone to a supercomputer, every electronic device contains at least one such type. With coverage of current and prototypical technologies, Nanoscale Semiconductor Memories: Technology and Applications presents the latest research in the field of nanoscale memories technology in one place. It also covers a myriad of applications that nanoscale memories technology has enabled. The book begins with coverage of SRAM, addressing the design challenges as the technology scales, then provides design strategies to mitigate radiation induced upsets in SRAM. It discusses the current state-of-the-art DRAM technology and the need to develop high performance sense amplifier circuitry. The text then covers the novel concept of capacitorless 1T DRAM, termed as Advanced-RAM or A-RAM, and presents a discussion on quantum dot (QD) based flash memory. Building on this foundation, the coverage turns to STT-RAM, emphasizing scalable embedded STT-RAM, and the physics and engineering of magnetic domain wall "racetrack" memory. The book also discusses state-of-the-art modeling applied to phase change memory devices and includes an extensive review of RRAM, highlighting the physics of operation and analyzing different materials systems currently under investigation. The hunt is still on for universal memory that fits all the requirements of an "ideal memory" capable of high-density storage, low-power operation, unparalleled speed, high endurance, and low cost. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this book bridges technological and application issues to provide the groundwork for developing custom designed memory systems.
This book summarizes the state-of-the-art, regarding noise in nanometer semiconductor devices. Readers will benefit from this leading-edge research, aimed at increasing reliability based on physical microscopic models. Authors discuss the most recent developments in the understanding of point defects, e.g. via ab initio calculations or intricate measurements, which have paved the way to more physics-based noise models which are applicable to a wider range of materials and features, e.g. III-V materials, 2D materials, and multi-state defects. Describes the state-of-the-art, regarding noise in nanometer semiconductor devices; Enables readers to design more reliable semiconductor devices; Offers the most up-to-date information on point defects, based on physical microscopic models.
Nanoscale techniques and devices have had an explosive influence on research in life sciences and bioengineering. Reflecting this influence, Nanopatterning and Nanoscale Devices for Biological Applications provides valuable insight into the latest developments in nanoscale technologies for the study of biological systems. Written and edited by experts in the field, this first-of-its-kind collection of topics: Covers device fabrication methods targeting the substrate on the nanoscale through surface modification Explores the generation of nanostructured biointerfaces and bioelectronics elements Examines microfluidically generated droplets as reactors enabling nanoscale sample preparation and analysis Gives an overview of key biosensors and integrated devices with nanoscale functionalities Discusses the biological applications of nanoscale devices, including a review of nanotechnology in tissue engineering Readers gain a deep understanding of the cutting-edge applications of nanotechnologies in biological engineering, and learn how to apply the relevant scientific concepts to their own research. Nanopatterning and Nanoscale Devices for Biological Applications is the definitive reference for researchers in engineering, biology, and biomedicine, and for anyone exploring the newest trends in this innovative field.
Advances in design methods and process technologies have resulted in a continuous increase in the complexity of integrated circuits (ICs). However, the increased complexity and nanometer-size features of modern ICs make them susceptible to manufacturing defects, as well as performance and quality issues. Testing for Small-Delay Defects in Nanoscale CMOS Integrated Circuits covers common problems in areas such as process variations, power supply noise, crosstalk, resistive opens/bridges, and design-for-manufacturing (DfM)-related rule violations. The book also addresses testing for small-delay defects (SDDs), which can cause immediate timing failures on both critical and non-critical paths in the circuit. Overviews semiconductor industry test challenges and the need for SDD testing, including basic concepts and introductory material Describes algorithmic solutions incorporated in commercial tools from Mentor Graphics Reviews SDD testing based on "alternative methods" that explores new metrics, top-off ATPG, and circuit topology-based solutions Highlights the advantages and disadvantages of a diverse set of metrics, and identifies scope for improvement Written from the triple viewpoint of university researchers, EDA tool developers, and chip designers and tool users, this book is the first of its kind to address all aspects of SDD testing from such a diverse perspective. The book is designed as a one-stop reference for current industrial practices, research challenges in the domain of SDD testing, and recent developments in SDD solutions.
The SONOS device with the smallest dimension in the gate width/length and the ONO thickness has been demonstrated. It has acceptable memory characteristics in retention time, high-speed program and low-power operation necessary for nonvolatile applications.
This book introduces the reader to a number of challenges for the operation of electronic devices in various harsh environmental conditions. While some chapters focus on measuring and understanding the effects of these environments on electronic components, many also propose design solutions, whether in choice of material, innovative structures, or strategies for amelioration and repair. Many applications need electronics designed to operate in harsh environments. Readers will find, in this collection of topics, tools and ideas useful in their own pursuits and of interest to their intellectual curiosity. With a focus on radiation, operating conditions, sensor systems, package, and system design, the book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with sensing devices designed for operating in the presence of radiation, commercials of the shelf (COTS) products for space computing, and influences of single event upset. The second covers system and package design for harsh operating conditions. The third presents devices for biomedical applications under moisture and temperature loads in the frame of sensor systems and operating conditions.
This book comprises selected peer-reviewed papers from the International Conference on VLSI, Signal Processing, Power Systems, Illumination and Lighting Control, Communication and Embedded Systems (VSPICE-2019). The contents are divided into five broad topics - VLSI and embedded systems, signal processing, power systems, illumination and control, and communication and networking. The book focuses on the latest innovations, trends, and challenges encountered in the different areas of electronics and communication, and electrical engineering. It also offers potential solutions and provides an insight into various emerging areas such as image fusion, bio-sensors, and underwater sensor networks. This book can prove to be useful for academics and professionals interested in the various sub-fields of electronics and communication engineering.
An Introduction to Electronic Materials for Engineers aims to give a basic understanding and comprehensive overview of a wide range of materials, such as conducting materials, semiconductors, magnetic materials, optical materials, dielectric materials, superconductors, thermoelectric materials and ionic materials. The new chapters added into this latest edition include thin film electronic materials, organic electronic materials and nanostructured materials. These chapters aim to reflect the new developments made in electronic materials and nanotechnology research towards the design and fabrication of modern equipment and electronic devices.This book is designed for undergraduate engineering and technology students who have background knowledge of physics and chemistry, as well as for engineers who work on materials processing or application, or electric/electronic engineering.It emphasizes on the synthesis, performance and application of electronic materials and will enable readers to understand and relate to the devices and materials.
Kevin Zhang Advancement of semiconductor technology has driven the rapid growth of very large scale integrated (VLSI) systems for increasingly broad applications, incl- ing high-end and mobile computing, consumer electronics such as 3D gaming, multi-function or smart phone, and various set-top players and ubiquitous sensor and medical devices. To meet the increasing demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in many different system applications, it is often required to have a large amount of on-die or embedded memory to support the need of data bandwidth in a system. The varieties of embedded memory in a given system have alsobecome increasingly more complex, ranging fromstatictodynamic and volatile to nonvolatile. Among embedded memories, six-transistor (6T)-based static random access memory (SRAM) continues to play a pivotal role in nearly all VLSI systems due to its superior speed and full compatibility with logic process technology. But as the technology scaling continues, SRAM design is facing severe challenge in mainta- ing suf?cient cell stability margin under relentless area scaling. Meanwhile, rapid expansion in mobile application, including new emerging application in sensor and medical devices, requires far more aggressive voltage scaling to meet very str- gent power constraint. Many innovative circuit topologies and techniques have been extensively explored in recent years to address these challenges.
Presenting the cutting-edge results of new device developments and circuit implementations, High-Speed Devices and Circuits with THz Applications covers the recent advancements of nano devices for terahertz (THz) applications and the latest high-speed data rate connectivity technologies from system design to integrated circuit (IC) design, providing relevant standard activities and technical specifications. Featuring the contributions of leading experts from industry and academia, this pivotal work: Discusses THz sensing and imaging devices based on nano devices and materials Describes silicon on insulator (SOI) multigate nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) Explains the theory underpinning nanoscale nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), simulation methods, and their results Explores the physics of the silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT), as well as commercially available SiGe HBT devices and their applications Details aspects of THz IC design using standard silicon (Si) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices, including experimental setups for measurements, detection methods, and more An essential text for the future of high-frequency engineering, High-Speed Devices and Circuits with THz Applications offers valuable insight into emerging technologies and product possibilities that are attractive in terms of mass production and compatibility with current manufacturing facilities.
Efficient mobile systems that allow for vital sign monitoring and disease diagnosis at the point of care can help combat issues such as rising healthcare costs, treatment delays in remote and resource-poor areas, and the global shortage of skilled medical personnel. Covering everything from sensors, systems, and software to integration, usability, and regulatory challenges, Mobile Point-of-Care Monitors and Diagnostic Device Design offers valuable insight into state-of-the-art technologies, research, and methods for designing personal diagnostic and ambulatory healthcare devices. Presenting the combined expertise of contributors from various fields, this multidisciplinary text: Gives an overview of the latest mobile health and point-of-care technologies Discusses portable diagnostics devices and sensors, including mobile-phone-based health systems Explores lab-on-chip systems as well as energy-efficient solutions for mobile point-of-care monitors Addresses computer vision and signal processing for real-time diagnostics Considers interface design for lay healthcare providers and home users Mobile Point-of-Care Monitors and Diagnostic Device Design provides important background information about the design process of mobile health and point-of-care devices, using practical examples to illustrate key aspects related to instrumentation, information processing, and implementation.
Metallic Spintronic Devices provides a balanced view of the present state of the art of metallic spintronic devices, addressing both mainstream and emerging applications from magnetic tunneling junction sensors and spin torque oscillators to spin torque memory and logic. Featuring contributions from well-known and respected industrial and academic experts, this cutting-edge work not only presents the latest research and developments but also: Describes spintronic applications in current and future magnetic recording devices Discusses spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device architectures and modeling Explores prospects of STT-MRAM scaling, such as detailed multilevel cell structure analysis Investigates spintronic device write and read optimization in light of spintronic memristive effects Considers spintronic research directions based on yttrium iron garnet thin films, including spin pumping, magnetic proximity, spin hall, and spin Seebeck effects Proposes unique solutions for low-power spintronic device applications where memory is closely integrated with logic Metallic Spintronic Devices aims to equip anyone who is serious about metallic spintronic devices with up-to-date design, modeling, and processing knowledge. It can be used either by an expert in the field or a graduate student in course curriculum.
This book presents the latest techniques for characterization, modeling and design for nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices. Coverage focuses on fundamental NVM device fabrication and characterization, internal state identification of memristic dynamics with physics modeling, NVM circuit design and hybrid NVM memory system design-space optimization. The authors discuss design methodologies for nano-scale NVM devices from a circuits/systems perspective, including the general foundations for the fundamental memristic dynamics in NVM devices. Coverage includes physical modeling, as well as the development of a platform to explore novel hybrid CMOS and NVM circuit and system design. • Offers readers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of emerging nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices; • Focuses on the internal state of NVM memristic dynamics, novel NVM readout and memory cell circuit design and hybrid NVM memory system optimization; • Provides both theoretical analysis and practical examples to illustrate design methodologies; • Illustrates design and analysis for recent developments in spin-toque-transfer, domain-wall racetrack and memristors.
Clouds, Communications, Open Source, and Automation
Author: David Bakken
Publisher: CRC Press
The utilization of sensors, communications, and computer technologies to create greater efficiency in the generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption of electricity will enable better management of the electric power system. As the use of smart grid technologies grows, utilities will be able to automate meter reading and billing and consumers will be more aware of their energy usage and the associated costs. The results will require utilities and their suppliers to develop new business models, strategies, and processes. With an emphasis on reducing costs and improving return on investment (ROI) for utilities, Smart Grids: Clouds, Communications, Open Source, and Automation explores the design and implementation of smart grid technologies, considering the benefits to consumers as well as businesses. Focusing on industrial applications, the text: Provides a state-of-the-art account of the smart grid Explains how smart grid technologies are currently being used Includes detailed examples and test cases for real-life implementation Discusses trade-offs associated with the utilization of smart grid technologies Describes smart grid simulation software and offers insight into the future of the smart grid The electric power grid is in the early stages of a sea of change. Nobody knows which business models will survive, but companies heeding the lessons found in Smart Grids: Clouds, Communications, Open Source, and Automation might just increase their chances for success.
Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits reveals how to effectively and optimally design 3D integrated circuits (ICs). It also analyzes the design tools for 3D circuits while exploiting the benefits of 3D technology. The book begins by offering an overview of physical design challenges with respect to conventional 2D circuits, and then each chapter delivers an in-depth look at a specific physical design topic. This comprehensive reference: Contains extensive coverage of the physical design of 2.5D/3D ICs and monolithic 3D ICs Supplies state-of-the-art solutions for challenges unique to 3D circuit design Features contributions from renowned experts in their respective fields Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits provides a single, convenient source of cutting-edge information for those pursuing 2.5D/3D technology.
Three-dimensional (3D) integration of microsystems and subsystems has become essential to the future of semiconductor technology development. 3D integration requires a greater understanding of several interconnected systems stacked over each other. While this vertical growth profoundly increases the system functionality, it also exponentially increases the design complexity. Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems tackles all aspects of 3D integration, including 3D circuit and system design, new processes and simulation techniques, alternative communication schemes for 3D circuits and systems, application of novel materials for 3D systems, and the thermal challenges to restrict power dissipation and improve performance of 3D systems. Containing contributions from experts in industry as well as academia, this authoritative text: Illustrates different 3D integration approaches, such as die-to-die, die-to-wafer, and wafer-to-wafer Discusses the use of interposer technology and the role of Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) Presents the latest improvements in three major fields of thermal management for multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) Explores ThruChip Interface (TCI), NAND flash memory stacking, and emerging applications Describes large-scale integration testing and state-of-the-art low-power testing solutions Complete with experimental results of chip-level 3D integration schemes tested at IBM and case studies on advanced complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) integration for 3D integrated circuits (ICs), Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems is a practical reference that not only covers a wealth of design issues encountered in 3D integration but also demonstrates their impact on the efficiency of 3D systems.
Exciting new developments are enabling sensors to go beyond the realm of simple sensing of movement or capture of images to deliver information such as location in a built environment, the sense of touch, and the presence of chemicals. These sensors unlock the potential for smarter systems, allowing machines to interact with the world around them in more intelligent and sophisticated ways. Featuring contributions from authors working at the leading edge of sensor technology, Technologies for Smart Sensors and Sensor Fusion showcases the latest advancements in sensors with biotechnology, medical science, chemical detection, environmental monitoring, automotive, and industrial applications. This valuable reference describes the increasingly varied number of sensors that can be integrated into arrays, and examines the growing availability and computational power of communication devices that support the algorithms needed to reduce the raw sensor data from multiple sensors and convert it into the information needed by the sensor array to enable rapid transmission of the results to the required point. Using both SI and US units, the text: Provides a fundamental and analytical understanding of the underlying technology for smart sensors Discusses groundbreaking software and sensor systems as well as key issues surrounding sensor fusion Exemplifies the richness and diversity of development work in the world of smart sensors and sensor fusion Offering fresh insight into the sensors of the future, Technologies for Smart Sensors and Sensor Fusion not only exposes readers to trends but also inspires innovation in smart sensor and sensor system development.
The primary aim of this book is to discuss various aspects of nanoscale device design and their applications including transport mechanism, modeling, and circuit applications. . Provides a platform for modeling and analysis of state-of-the-art devices in nanoscale regime, reviews issues related to optimizing the sub-nanometer device performance and addresses simulation aspect and/or fabrication process of devices Also, includes design problems at the end of each chapter
This book teaches basic and advanced concepts, new methodologies and recent developments in VLSI technology with a focus on low power design. It provides insight on how to use Tanner Spice, Cadence tools, Xilinx tools, VHDL programming and Synopsis to design simple and complex circuits using latest state-of-the art technologies. Emphasis is placed on fundamental transistor circuit-level design concepts.