The stories translated here all of ancient Mesopotamia, and include not only myths about the Creation and stories of the Flood, but also the longest and greatest literary composition, the Epic of Gilgamesh. This is the story of a heroic quest for fame and immortality, pursued by a man of great strength who loses a unique opportunity through a moment's weakness. So much has been discovered in recent years both by way of new tablets and points of grammar and lexicography that these new translations by Stephanie Dalley supersede all previous versions. -- from back cover.
Parallels and Influence in the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod
Author: Charles Penglase
The Mesopotamian influence on Greek mythology in literary works of the epic period is considerable - yet it is a largely unexplored field. In this book Charles Penglase investigates major Mesopotamian and Greek myths. His examination concentrates on journey myths. A major breakthrough is achieved in the recognition of the extent of Mesopotamian influence and in the understanding of the colourful myths involved. The results are of significant interest, especially to scholars and students of ancient Greek and Near Eastern religion and mythology.
In her book, the author offers readers a compact guide to the religion of the peoples living in the region of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from the beginning of the Bronze Age to the time of Alexander the Great and Darius III. Drawing on extant texts, artifacts, and architecture, Schneider uncovers both an intriguing pantheon of deities -- including Marduk, Ishtar, and many others -- and the complex, fluid, and highly ritualized religious experience of the people who spent their lives serving and appeasing them.
Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures
Author: Geoffrey Stephen Kirk
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Social Science
This book attempts to come to grips with a set of widely ranging but connected problems concerning myths: their relation to folktales on the one hand, to rituals on the other; the validity and scope of the structuralist theory of myth; the range of possible mythical functions; the effects of developed social institutions and literacy; the character and meaning of ancient Near-Eastern myths and their influence on Greece; the special forms taken by Greek myths and their involvement with rational modes of thought; the status of myths as expressions of the unconscious, as allied with dreams, as universal symbols, or as accidents of primarily narrative aims. Almost none of these problems has been convincingly handled, even in a provisional way, up to the present, and this failure has vitiated not only such few general discussions as exist of the nature, meanings and functions of myths but also, in many cases, the detailed assessment of individual myths of different cultures. The need for a coherent treatment of these and related problems, and one that is not concerned simply to propagate a particular universalistic theory, seems undeniable. How far the present book will satisfactorily fill such a need remains to be seen. At least it makes a beginning, even if in doing so it risks the criticism of being neither fish nor fowl. Sociologists and folklorists may find it, from their specialized viewpoints, a little simplistic in places; and a few classical colleagues will not forgive me for straying far beyond Greek myths, even though these can hardly be understood in isolation or solely in the light of studies in cult and ritual. Others may find it less easy than anthropologists, sociologists, historians of thought or students of French and English literature to accept the relevance of Levi-Strauss to some of these matters; but his theory contains the one important new idea in this field since Freud, it is complicated and largely untested, and it demands careful attention from anyone attempting a broad understanding of the subject. The beliefs of Freud and Jung, on the other hand, are a more familiar element in the situation and have given rise to an enormous secondary literature, much of it arbitrary and some of it absurd. The author has tried to isolate the crucial ideas and subject them to a pointed, if too brief, critique; so too with those of Ernst Cassirer.
Scholarly proposals are presented for the pre-biblical origin in Mesopotamian myths of the Garden of Eden story. Some Liberal PhD scholars (1854-2010) embracing an Anthropological viewpoint have proposed that the Hebrews have recast earlier motifs appearing in Mesopotamian myths. Eden's garden is understood to be a recast of the gods' city-gardens in the Sumerian Edin, the floodplain of Lower Mesopotamia. It is understood that the Hebrews in the book of Genesis are refuting the Mesopotamian account of why Man was created and his relationship with his Creators (the gods and goddesses). They deny that Man is a sinner and rebel because he was made in the image of gods and goddesses who were themselves sinners and rebels, who made man to be their agricultural slave to grow and harvest their food and feed it to them in temple sacrifices thereby ending the need of the gods to toil for their food in the city-gardens of Edin in ancient Sumer.
A Comprehensive Guide to Mesopotamian Mythology Including Myths, Art, Religion, and Culture
Author: Historical Figures Publishing
Read for FREE with Kindle Unlimited!Mesopotamia: A Comprehensive Guide to Mesopotamian Mythology including Myths, Art, Religion, and CultureDo you want to learn about Mesopotamia? Mеѕороtаmiа is a rеgiоn оf southwest Aѕiа in the Tigriѕ аnd Euphrates rivеr ѕуѕtеm thаt bеnеfittеd from the аrеа'ѕ сlimаtе and gеоgrарhу to hоѕt the beginnings оf humаn сivilizаtiоn. Itѕ history iѕ mаrkеd by mаnу imроrtаnt invеntiоnѕ thаt сhаngеd the world, inсluding the concept of timе, mаth, thе whееl, ѕаilbоаtѕ, mарѕ аnd writing. Mesopotamia iѕ also defined by a сhаnging ѕuссеѕѕiоn оf ruling bоdiеѕ frоm different аrеаѕ аnd сitiеѕ that seized control оvеr a реriоd of thousands of уеаrѕ. Thiѕ bооk focuses оn сеrtаin local роwеrѕ in Old Bаbуlоniаn Mesopotamia (ca. 2000 - 1595 B.C.), nаmеlу thе сhiеf of thе сitу (rаbiаnum), the elders, the "сitу," аnd the аѕѕеmblу. Thiѕ is a nоvеl аррrоасh to Old Bаbуlоniаn hiѕtоrу thаt аllоwѕ us tо understand the constituency, activities, and ѕрhеrе оf influence оf local inѕtitutiоnѕ оf аuthоritу, and thе wау thеу coped with ѕtаtе officials аnd royal роliсiеѕ. Fосuѕing оn lосаl powers сhаngеѕ the trаditiоnаl mаnnеr оf lооking аt thе state. Thiѕ is ѕо bесаuѕе fаr from bеing a mоnоlithiс entity that unilaterally made dесiѕiоnѕ соnсеrning people, wаtеr, land, аnd оthеr resources, thе ѕtаtе hаd tо dеаl with local inѕtitutiоnѕ that wеrе nоt аlwауѕ willing tо ассерt royal dесiѕiоnѕ раѕѕivеlу. The ѕtаtе was often unable tо penetrate dеерlу into traditional social and economic рrасtiсеѕ that wеrе controlled by lосаl leaders, as is mоѕt apparent in thе conflict оf juriѕdiсtiоn related tо lаnd distribution. Hоwеvеr, thе state did ѕurrерtitiоuѕlу со-орt lосаl lеаdеrѕ into thе rоуаl dоmаin. Thе mеthоdоlоgу аnd соnсluѕiоnѕ of this саѕе ѕtudу of lосаl аuthоritiеѕ in Old Bаbуlоniаn Mеѕороtаmiа will аlѕо bе uѕеful for those ѕtudуing оthеr ancient states аnd complex societies. Here Is A Preview Of What You'll Learn... Timeline of sumerian civilization Who were the sumerians? Where did the sumerians live Sumerian religion What are sumerian workship gods? Sumerian cosmology Much, much more! ACT NOW! Click the orange BUY button at the top of this page!Then you can begin reading Mesopotamia: A Comprehensive Guide to Mesopotamian Mythology including Myths, Art, Religion, and Culture on your Kindle device, computer, tablet or smartphone.
The Ambiguity of Eros in the Stories of Gilgamesh and David
Author: Susan Ackerman
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
Toward the end of the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh King Gilgamesh laments the untimely death of his comrade Enkidu, "my friend whom I loved dearly." Similarly in the Bible, David mourns his companion, Jonathan, whose "love to me was wonderful, greater than the love of women." These passages, along with other ambiguous erotic and sexual language found in the Gilgamesh epic and the biblical David story, have become the object of numerous and competing scholarly inquiries into the sexual nature of the heroes' relationships. Susan Ackerman's innovative work carefully examines the stories' sexual and homoerotic language and suggests that its ambiguity provides new ways of understanding ideas of gender and sexuality in the ancient Near East and its literature. In exploring the stories of Gilgamesh and Enkidu and David and Jonathan, Ackerman cautions against applying modern conceptions of homosexuality to these relationships. Drawing on historical and literary criticism, Ackerman's close readings analyze the stories of David and Gilgamesh in light of contemporary definitions of sexual relationships and gender roles. She argues that these male relationships cannot be taken as same-sex partnerships in the modern sense, but reflect the ancient understanding of gender roles, whether in same- or opposite-sex relationships, as defined as either active (male) or passive (female). Her interpretation also considers the heroes' erotic and sexual interactions with members of the opposite sex. Ackerman shows that the texts' language and erotic imagery suggest more than just an intense male bonding. She argues that, though ambiguous, the erotic imagery and language have a critical function in the texts and serve the political, religious, and aesthetic aims of the narrators. More precisely, the erotic language in the story of David seeks to feminize Jonathan and thus invalidate his claim to Israel's throne in favor of David. In the case of Gilgamesh and Enkidu, whose egalitarian relationship is paradoxically described using the hierarchically dependent language of sexual relationships, the ambiguous erotic language reinforces their status as liminal figures and heroes in the epic tradition.
A Festschrift to Honour Professor John Emerton for His Eightieth Birthday
Author: Katharine Julia Dell
Studies of Genesis, Isaiah and Psalms, key biblical texts that represent the interests of the honorand, Professor John Emerton. The comparison of biblical texts with the ancient Near East and archaeological finds; intertextual work, literary historical approaches, texts and versions and scholarly interpretations from the past are all represented.