Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

Sourse [i.e. Source] Location

Author: Frode Ringdal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Computers

Page: 419

View: 976

In September 1996, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), prohibiting nuclear explosions worldwide, in all environments. The treaty calls for a global verification system, including a network of 321 monitoring stations distributed around the globe, a data communications network, an international data centre (IDC), and on-site inspections, to verify compliance. This volume contains research papers focusing on seismic ecent location in the CTBT context. The on-site inspection protocol of the treaty specifies a search area not to exceed 1000 square km. Much of the current research effort is therefore directed towards refining the accuracy of event location by including allowances for three-dimensional structure within the Earth. The aim is that the true location of each event will lie within the specified source zone regarding postulated location. The papers in this volume cover many aspects of seismic event location, including the development of algorithms suitable for use with three-dimensional models, allowances for regional structure, use of calibration events and source-specific station corrections. They provide a broad overview of the current international effort to improve seismic event location accuracy, and the editors hope that it will stimulate increased interest and further advances in this important field.

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Data Processing and Infrasound

Author: Zoltan A. Der

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 325

On September 10, 1996, The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Copmprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), prohibiting nuclear explosions worldwide, in all environments. The treaty calls for a global verification system, including a network of 321 monitoring stations distributed around the globe, a data communications network, an international data center (IDC), and on-site inspections, to verify compliance. This volume presents certain recent research results pertaining on methods used to process data recorded by instruments of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and addressing recording infrasound signals generated by atmospheric explosions. Six papers treating data processing provide an important selection of topics expected to contribute to improving our ability to successfully monitor a CTBT. Five papers concerning infrasound include descriptions of ways in which that important research area can contribute to CTBT monitoring, the automatic processing of infrasound data, and site conditions that serve to improve the quality of infrasound data.

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Surface Waves

Author: Anatoli L. Levshin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 243

View: 488

On September 1996, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), prohibiting nuclear explosions worldwide, in all environments. The treaty calls for a global verification system, including a network of 321 monitoring stations distributed around the globe, a data communications network, an international data center (IDC), and on-site inspections to verify compliance. Seismic methods play the lead role in monitoring the CTBT. This volume concentrates on the measurement and use of surface waves in monitoring the CTBT. Surface waves have three principal applications in CTBT monitoring: to help discriminate nuclear explosions from other sources of seismic energy, to provide mathematical characterizations of the seismic energy that emanates from seismic sources, and to be used as data in inversion for the seismic velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle for locating small seismic events regionally. The papers in this volume fall into two general categories: the development and/or application of methods to summarize information in surface waves, and the use of these summaries to advance the art of surface-wave identification, measurement, and source characterization. These papers cut across essentially all of the major applications of surface waves to monitoring the CTBT. This volume therefore provides a general introduction to the state of research in this area and should be useful as a guide for further exploration.

Monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Author: Eystein S. Husebye

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 836

View: 401

An international treaty banning the testing of any nuclear device in any environment - a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) - has been on the political agenda for nearly 40 years. Objections to a CTBT have been political, technical, or a combination of both. However, the possibilities seem better after the end of the Cold War. In the prevailing, cooperative disarmament climate a CTBT appears likely to be approved by most countries in 1996. Hence the great current interest in monitoring technologies and capabilities. Such issues are comprehensively addressed here, a preamble being devoted to the political developments and setbacks over the past 40 years. Since seismic means are considered the dominant monitoring element, they are explored in detail. Contributions cover network deployments, advanced signal processing, wave propagation in heterogeneous media, and seismic source representations, and a variety of techniques for source classification (including neural networks). Complementary monitoring techniques, such as hydroacoustics, radionuclides and infrasound, are also summarised. The IAEA operation for monitoring compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty is also presented. The book also includes eyewitness accounts of the Soviet 50 Mt megabomb development and test, as well as the efforts made by the state to monitor the nuclear test programmes of the western powers. Includes some 33 articles written by distinguished scientists active in CTBT monitoring research for decades.

Research Required to Support Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Monitoring

Author: Panel on Basic Research Requirements in Support of Comprehensive Test Ban Monitoring

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 133

View: 884

On September 24, 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty at the United Nations Headquarters. Over the next five months, 141 nations, including the four other nuclear weapon states -- Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom -- added their signatures to this total ban on nuclear explosions. To help achieve verification of compliance with its provisions, the treaty specifies an extensive International Monitoring System of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasonic, and radionuclide sensors. This volume identifies specific research activities that will be needed if the United States is to effectively monitor compliance with the treaty provisions.

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Seismic Event Discrimination and Identification

Author: William R. Walter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 387

In September 1996, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), prohibiting nuclear explosions worldwide, in all environments. The treaty calls for a global verification system, including a network of 321 monitoring stations distributed around the globe, a data communications network, an international data center, and onsite inspections, to verify compliance. The problem of identifying small-magnitude banned nuclear tests and discriminating between such tests and the background of earthquakes and mining-related seismic events, is a challenging research problem. Because they emphasize CTBT verification research, the 12 papers in this special volume primarily addresses regional data recorded by a variety of arrays, broadband stations, and temporarily deployed stations. Nuclear explosions, earthquakes, mining-related explosions, mine collapses, single-charge and ripple-fired chemical explosions from Europe, Asia, North Africa, and North America are all studied. While the primary emphasis is on short-period, body-wave discriminants and associated source and path corrections, research that focuses on long-period data recorded at regional and teleseismic distances is also presented Hence, these papers demonstrate how event identification research in support of CTBT monitoring has expanded in recent years to include a wide variety of event types, data types, geographic regions and statistical techniques.

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Source Processes and Explosion Yield Estimation

Author: Goran Ekstrom

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 429

View: 823

Pure appl. geophys., by 161 nations. Entry of the treaty into force, however, is still uncertain since it requires ratification by all 44 nations that have some nuclear capability and, as of 15 June 2001, only 31 of those nations have done so. Although entry of the CTBT into force is still uncertain, seismologists and scientists in related fields, such as radionuclides, have proceeded with new research on issues relevant to monitoring compliance with it. Results of much of that research may be used by the International Monitoring System, headquartered in Vienna, and by several national centers and individual institutions, to monitor compliance with the CTBT. New issues associated with CTBT monitoring in the 21st century have presented scientists with many new challenges. They must be able to effectively monitor com pliance by several countries that have not previously been nuclear powers. Effective monitoring requires that we be able to detect and locate much smaller nuclear events than ever before and to distinguish them from small earthquakes and other types of explosions. We must have those capabilities in regions that are seismically active and geologically complex, and where seismic waves might not propagate efficiently.

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty: Hydroacoustics

Author: Catherine de Groot-Hedlin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 210

View: 114

In September 1996, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), prohibiting nuclear explosions worldwide, in all environments. The treaty calls for a global verification system, including a network of 321 monitoring stations distributed around the globe, a data communications network, an international data centre (IDC), and on-site inspections, to verify compliance. A global hydroacoustic monitoring system is being planned and implemented for verification of the CTBT. Much of the research conducted over the past several decades on acoustic surveillance of the oceans, formerly driven by the need to detect and track submarines, is now being applied to the development of effective monitoring methods to verify compliance with the CTBT. The aim of this volume on Hydroacoustic Monitoring of the CTBT is to summarize the research being conducted in this field and to provide basic references for future research. Much of the new research emphasizes major advances in understanding the coupling of ocean acoustic waves with elastic waves in the solid Earth. Topics covered include source excitation, detection and classification of events generating hydroacoustic signals, discrimination between underwater explosions and naturally occurring events, as well as topics in coupling of acoustic to seismic wavefields.

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

Author: Frode Ringdal

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page:

View: 667

In September 1996, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), prohibiting nuclear explosions worldwide, in all environments. The treaty calls for a global verification system, including a network of 321 monitoring stations distributed around the globe, a data communications network, an international data centre (IDC), and on-site inspections, to verify compliance. This set of 7 volumes contains research papers focusing on seismic event location, hydroacoustics, regional wave propagation and crustal structure, source processes and explotion yield estimation, surface waves, seismic event discrimination and identification, data processing, and infrasound in the CTBT context.