RNA plays a central, and until recently, somewhat underestimated role in the genetics underlying all forms of life on earth. This versatile molecule not only plays a crucial part in the synthesis of proteins from a DNA template, but is also intrinsically involved in the regulation of gene expression, and in catalysis.This landmark text provides a systematic overview of the exciting and rapidly moving field of RNA biology. For the secondedition of Molecular Biology of RNA more introductory material has been incorporated at the beginning of the text, while new material has been included throughout - particularly in relation to RNA bindingdomains, non-coding RNAs, and the connection between RNA biology and epigenetics. Finally, a new closing chapter discusses how exciting new technologies are being used to explore current topical areas of research.
Nucleic acids are the fundamental building blocks of DNA and RNA and are found in virtually every living cell. Molecular biology is a branch of science that studies the physicochemical properties of molecules in a cell, including nucleic acids, proteins, and enzymes. Increased understanding of nucleic acids and their role in molecular biology will further many of the biological sciences, including genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology is intended to bring to light the most recent advances in these overlapping disciplines with a timely compilation of reviews comprising each volume. * This series provides a forum for discussion of new discoveries, approaches, and ideas * Contributions from leading scholars and industry experts * Reference guide for researchers involved in molecular biology and related fields
Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses deals with the molecular biology and biologic significance of RNA tumor viruses. Methods and procedures with broad application to diverse areas of molecular biology, including cell culture procedures, competition radioimmunoassays, molecular hybridization, oligonucleotide mapping, heteroduplex mapping, and restriction endonuclease techniques, are considered. This book is organized into 12 chapters and begins with a historical overview of tumor virology beginning with the early studies of Peyton Rous and leading up to the significant surge of activity during the later decade. The biology of endogenous retroviruses, their transmission both within and between species, and cellular regulatory factors influencing their expression are subsequently discussed. This book then addresses the nature and origin of transforming RNA viruses and gives a detailed review of knowledge concerning the genomic structure of type C viruses. Translational products encoded by the type C viral genome are examined in ensuing chapters, emphasizing the viral reverse transcriptase. Other mammalian retroviruses, including the mouse mammary tumor virus and type D isolates of primates, are also described. The book concludes by evaluating the possibility of direct etiologic involvement of either endogenous or exogenous RNA tumor viruses in human cancers. This book will be of value both to graduate students and to established investigators with specific interest in other aspects of molecular biology.
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are one of the classical non-coding RNAs whose lengths are approximately 70–100 bases. The secondary structure of tRNAs can be represented as the cloverleaf with 4 stems, and the three dimensional structure as an “L” shape. Historically, the basic function of tRNA as an essential component of translation was established in 1960s, i.e., each tRNA is charged with a target amino acid and these are delivered to the ribosome during protein synthesis. However, recent data suggests that the role of tRNA in cellular regulation goes beyond this paradigm. In most Archaea and Eukarya, precursor tRNAs are often interrupted by a short intron inserted strictly between the first and second nucleotide downstream of the anticodon, known as canonical nucleotide position (37/38). Recently, a number of reports describe novel aspects of tRNAs in terms of gene diversity, for example, several types of disrupted tRNA genes have been reported in the Archaea and primitive Eukarya, including multiple-intron-containing tRNA genes, split tRNA genes, and permuted tRNA genes. Our understanding of the enzymes involved in tRNA functions (e.g., aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, tRNA splicing endonuclease, tRNA ligase) has deepened. Moreover, it is well known that tRNA possesses many types of base modifications whose enzymatic regulations remain to be fully elucidated. It was reported that impaired tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic export links DNA damage and cell-cycle checkpoint. Furthermore, a variety of additional functions of tRNA, beyond its translation of the genetic code, have emerged rapidly. For instance, tRNA cleavage is a conserved part of the responses to a variety of stresses in eukaryotic cells. Age-associated or tissue-specific tRNA fragmentation has also been observed. Several papers suggested that some of these tRNA fragments might be involve in the cellular RNA interference (RNAi) system. These exciting data, have lead to this call for a Research Topic, that plans to revisit and summarize the molecular biology of tRNA. Beyond the topics outlined above, we have highlighted recent developments in bioinformatics tools and databases for tRNA analyses.
Gene therapy, the human genome project, the creation of new varieties of animals and plants have all emanated from molecular biology. Beginning with turn-of-the-century experimentations, this ambitious history covers the story of the transformation of biology over the last 100 years.
Molecular Biology of RNA: New Perspectives provides an overview of the developments in RNA research as well as the approaches, strategies, and methodologies used. Most of the contributing authors in the present volume participated in the Fifth Stony Brook Symposium entitled "New Perspectives on the Molecular Biology of RNA" in May 1986. The text is organized into six parts. Part I contains papers dealing with RNA as an enzyme. Part II presents studies on RNA splicing. Part III examines RNA viruses while Part IV focuses on the role of RNA in DNA replication. Part V is devoted to the structure, function, and isolation of RNA. Finally, Part VI takes up the role of RNA in regulation and repression. This volume will help provide new direction and insight for those already working on the subject and will serve as a useful guide to those about to start research in the molecular biology of RNA.