In addition to learning how to apply classic statistical methods, students need to understand when these methods perform well, and when and why they can be highly unsatisfactory. Modern Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences illustrates how to use R to apply both standard and modern methods to correct known problems with classic techniques. Numerous illustrations provide a conceptual basis for understanding why practical problems with classic methods were missed for so many years, and why modern techniques have practical value. Designed for a two-semester, introductory course for graduate students in the social sciences, this text introduces three major advances in the field: Early studies seemed to suggest that normality can be assumed with relatively small sample sizes due to the central limit theorem. However, crucial issues were missed. Vastly improved methods are now available for dealing with non-normality. The impact of outliers and heavy-tailed distributions on power and our ability to obtain an accurate assessment of how groups differ and variables are related is a practical concern when using standard techniques, regardless of how large the sample size might be. Methods for dealing with this insight are described. The deleterious effects of heteroscedasticity on conventional ANOVA and regression methods are much more serious than once thought. Effective techniques for dealing heteroscedasticity are described and illustrated. Requiring no prior training in statistics, Modern Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences provides a graduate-level introduction to basic, routinely used statistical techniques relevant to the social and behavioral sciences. It describes and illustrates methods developed during the last half century that deal with known problems associated with classic techniques. Espousing the view that no single method is always best, it imparts a general understanding of the relative merits of various techniques so that the choice of method can be made in an informed manner.
"Requiring no prior training, Modern Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences provides a two-semester, graduate-level introduction to basic statistical techniques that takes into account recent advances and insights that are typically ignored in an introductory course. Hundreds of journal articles make it clear that basic techniques, routinely taught and used, can perform poorly when dealing with skewed distributions, outliers, heteroscedasticity (unequal variances) and curvature. Methods for dealing with these concerns have been derived and can provide a deeper, more accurate and more nuanced understanding of data. A conceptual basis is provided for understanding when and why standard methods can have poor power and yield misleading measures of effect size. Modern techniques for dealing with known concerns are described and illustrated. Features:Presents an in-depth description of both classic and modern methodsExplains and illustrates why recent advances can provide more power and a deeper understanding of dataProvides numerous illustrations using the software RIncludes an R package with over 1300 functionsIncludes a solution manual giving detailed answers to all of the exercisesThis second edition describes many recent advances relevant to basic techniques. For example, a vast array of new and improved methods is now available for dealing with regression, including substantially improved ANCOVA techniques. The coverage of multiple comparison procedures has been expanded and new ANOVA techniques are described.Rand Wilcox is a professor of psychology at the University of Southern California. He is the author of 13 other statistics books and the creator of the R package WRS. He currently serves as an associate editor for five statistics journals. He is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. "--Provided by publisher.
Contributors thoroughly survey the most important statistical models used in empirical reserch in the social and behavioral sciences. Following a common format, each chapter introduces a model, illustrates the types of problems and data for which the model is best used, provides numerous examples that draw upon familiar models or procedures, and includes material on software that can be used to estimate the models studied. This handbook will aid researchers, methodologists, graduate students, and statisticians to understand and resolve common modeling problems.
Recent Publications in the Social and Behavioral Sciences presents a guide to books, articles, some government reports, and a few pamphlets and unbound items about the theory; methodology; the principal areas of investigation and areas of investigation of potential reward; and about the role of the social sciences in contemporary society. The book provides a list of cited periodicals, bibliography, and title and subject indices. The text also covers a bibliography of special issues of The Americal Behavioral Scientist. The book will be useful to behavioral scientists, psychologists, and psychiatrists.
This is the first book to demonstrate the application of power analysis to the newer more advanced statistical techniques that are increasingly used in the social and behavioral sciences. Both basic and advanced designs are covered. Readers are shown how to apply power analysis to techniques such as hierarchical linear modeling, meta-analysis, and structural equation modeling. Each chapter opens with a review of the statistical procedure and then proceeds to derive the power functions. This is followed by examples that demonstrate how to produce power tables and charts. The book clearly shows how to calculate power by providing open code for every design and procedure in R, SAS, and SPSS. Readers can verify the power computation using the computer programs on the book's website. There is a growing requirement to include power analysis to justify sample sizes in grant proposals. Most chapters are self-standing and can be read in any order without much disruption.This book will help readers do just that. Sample computer code in R, SPSS, and SAS at www.routledge.com/9781848729810 are written to tabulate power values and produce power curves that can be included in a grant proposal. Organized according to various techniques, chapters 1 – 3 introduce the basics of statistical power and sample size issues including the historical origin, hypothesis testing, and the use of statistical power in t tests and confidence intervals. Chapters 4 - 6 cover common statistical procedures -- analysis of variance, linear regression (both simple regression and multiple regression), correlation, analysis of covariance, and multivariate analysis. Chapters 7 - 11 review the new statistical procedures -- multi-level models, meta-analysis, structural equation models, and longitudinal studies. The appendixes contain a tutorial about R and show the statistical theory of power analysis. Intended as a supplement for graduate courses on quantitative methods, multivariate statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and/or multilevel modeling and SEM taught in psychology, education, human development, nursing, and social and life sciences, this is the first text on statistical power for advanced procedures. Researchers and practitioners in these fields also appreciate the book‘s unique coverage of the use of statistical power analysis to determine sample size in planning a study. A prerequisite of basic through multivariate statistics is assumed.
Multiple Regression and Limited-dependent Variable Models
Author: William H. Crown
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Category: Business & Economics
Multiple regression analysis has been widely used by researchers to analyze complex social problems since the 1950s. A specialization in economics, known as econometrics, developed out of a recognition that multiple regression is based upon a large number of assumptions--many of which are commonly violated in specific applications. Econometricians developed tests for violations of the regression model assumptions, as well as a variety of corrective measures for estimating regression models in the presence of many of the violations. Unfortunately, the mathematical sophistication required to understand the econometrics literature started out high and has continued to rise over the years. As a consequence, an understanding of the assumptions of the regression model, tests for violations, and corrective estimation approaches have failed to permeate widely many other policy-related disciplines such as political science, social work, public administration, and sociology. One of the key objectives of this book is to translate the results from the econometrics literature into language that policy analysts from other disciplines can understand easily. A second objective is to present a discussion of so-called limited-dependent variable models. One of the assumptions of the regression model is that the dependent variable is measured on an interval scale. But often the dependent variable of interest is discrete or categorical. Whether someone is in poverty or, whether they are working full-time, part-time, or out of the labor force, marital status--all are examples of categorical variables that might be of policy interest. Moreover, the growing availability of large-scale public use data sets containing information on individuals and families has heightened the relevance of categorical variables in policy analysis. The mathematical preparation required to understand procedures for estimating categorical models is, however, even more daunting than that for fully understanding and using the regression model. As with the theoretical development of the regression model, most presentations of categorical models, such as Logit and Probit, are to be found in econometric literature. Moreover, this literature offers little in the way of practical advice on how to estimate and interpret model results. This book is the first to present a detailed and accessible discussion of multiple regression and limited-dependent variable models in the context of policy analysis. As such it will be an invaluable resource for most scholars, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences.
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences is an introduction to statistics text that will engage students in an ongoing spirit of discovery by illustrating how statistics apply to modern-day research problems. By integrating instructions, screenshots, and practical examples for using IBM SPSS® Statistics software, the book makes it easy for students to learn statistical concepts within each chapter. Gregory J. Privitera takes a user-friendly approach while balancing statistical theory, computation, and application with the technical instruction needed for students to succeed in the modern era of data collection, analysis, and statistical interpretation.
This unique volume addresses the inadequacies of basic statistical methods that standard textbooks tend to ignore. The author introduces new procedures with accompanying tables that illustrate the practicality of the methods. Concentrating on basic experimental designs that are central to research in the social sciences, Wilcox describes new nonparametric techniques, two-way ANOVA designs, and new results related to the analysis of covariance and repeated measure design. This book serves as the ideal reference and supplement to standard texts by making the statistical advances of the last thirty years accessible to graduate students and researchers.
Categorical data are quantified as either nominal variables--distinguishing different groups, for example, based on socio-economic status, education, and political persuasion--or ordinal variables--distinguishing levels of interest, such as the preferred politician or the preferred type of punishment for committing burglary. This new book is a collection of up-to-date studies on modern categorical data analysis methods, emphasizing their application to relevant and interesting data sets. This volume concentrates on latent class analysis and item response theory. These methods use latent variables to explain the relationships among observed categorical variables. Latent class analysis yields the classification of a group of respondents according to their pattern of scores on the categorical variables. This provides insight into the mechanisms producing the data and allows the estimation of factor structures and regression models conditional on the latent class structure. Item response theory leads to the identification of one or more ordinal or interval scales. In psychological and educational testing these scales are used for individual measurement of abilities and personality traits. The focus of this volume is applied. After a method is explained, the potential of the method for analyzing categorical data is illustrated by means of a real data example to show how it can be used effectively for solving a real data problem. These methods are accessible to researchers not trained explicitly in applied statistics. This volume appeals to researchers and advanced students in the social and behavioral sciences, including social, developmental, organizational, clinical and health psychologists, sociologists, educational and marketing researchers, and political scientists. In addition, it is of interest to those who collect data on categorical variables and are faced with the problem of how to analyze such variables--among themselves or in relation to metric variables.