A Primer on Macroeconomics for Sovereign Monetary Systems
Author: L. Randall Wray
Category: Business & Economics
This second edition explores how money 'works' in the modern economy and synthesises the key principles of Modern Money Theory, exploring macro accounting, currency regimes and exchange rates in both the USA and developing nations.
Modern Monetary Theory and How to Build a Better Economy
Author: Stephanie Kelton
Publisher: Hachette UK
Category: Business & Economics
THE SUNDAY TIMES BESTSELLER 'The tools we desperately need to build a safe future for all. Read it' Naomi Klein 'This book is going to be influential' Financial Times 'A rock star in her field' The Times 'Convincingly overturns conventional wisdom' New York Times Supporting the economy, paying for healthcare, creating new jobs, preventing the a climate apocalypse - vital challenges which inevitably raise the question: how can we pay for it? Stephanie Kelton shows how misguided this question really is by using the bold ideas of modern monetary theory (MMT), the radically different approach to using our resources to maximize our potential as a society. Everything that we've been led to believe about deficits and the role of money and government spending in the economy is wrong, especially the fear that deficits will endanger our long-term prosperity. Rather than asking the self-defeating question of how to pay for the crucial improvements our society needs, Kelton guides us to ask: which deficits actually matter? What is the best way to balance the risk of inflation against the benefits of a society that is more broadly prosperous, safer, cleaner, and secure? Kelton is the leading thinker and most visible public advocate of MMT - the most important idea about economics in decades - and delivers a fundamentally different, bold, new understanding for how to build a just and prosperous society. 'Game-changing ... Read it!' Mariana Mazzucato 'Essential for a post-COVID-19 world' Guardian 'The best book on rethinking economics that anyone will find right now' Richard Murphy, Political Economist and author of The Joy of Tax 'A remarkable book both in content and timing. A 'must read' that is sure to influence many aspects of policymaking going forward' Mohamed El-Erian, chief economic advisor at Allianz
Modern Monetary Theory and Practice: An Introductory Text is an introductory textbook for university-level macroeconomics students. It is based on the principles of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) and includes the following detailed chapters:Chapter 1: IntroductionChapter 2: How to Think and Do MacroeconomicsChapter 3: A Brief Overview of the Economic History and the Rise of CapitalismChapter 4: The System of National Income and Product AccountsChapter 5: Sectoral Accounting and the Flow of FundsChapter 6: Introduction to Sovereign Currency: The Government and its MoneyChapter 7: The Real Expenditure ModelChapter 8: Introduction to Aggregate SupplyChapter 9: Labour Market Concepts and MeasurementChapter 10: Money and BankingChapter 11: Unemployment and InflationChapter 12: Full Employment PolicyChapter 13: Introduction to Monetary and Fiscal Policy OperationsChapter 14: Fiscal Policy in Sovereign nationsChapter 15: Monetary Policy in Sovereign NationsIt is intended as an introductory course in macroeconomics and the narrative is accessible to students of all backgrounds. All mathematical and advanced material appears in separate Appendices.
Soft Currency Economics is the little book that could logically, in both real and nominal terms, legitimately challenge many of the core held beliefs of the mainstream classical and neo-classical schools of economics. It is a corner stone publication for the new, widely popular fresh approach to economics that has come to be called Modern Monetary Theory (MMT). It explains with actual facts, not theory, and with non-technical language, the true operational realities of our monetary system (central banks and private banks). The author, a 40 year 'insider' in monetary operations, and a very successful fixed income hedge fund manager, wrote this book in 1993 after witnessing the markets drastically discount sovereign debt on the errant belief that market forces could force nations into default on debt payable in their own currency, and that austerity was the only solution. This was contrary to the author's understanding of what are called fiat currencies, where governments always have the ability to meet all obligations in a timely manner. As a result of this experience, the author took up the task of educating government officials on how the monetary system operated with the hope that with this understanding they would be free to ensure that the government acted for the public purpose and achieved their stated goals of full employment and price stability. Initially published in 1993, this book will utterly convince many readers that what they thought they knew about monetary policy is wrong. The book describes: what is money; why debt monetization and the money multiplier are myths; how fiscal and monetary policy can be used effectuate full employment; deficits do not cause countries to default on their debt unless that is the decision.
This Palgrave Pivot assesses the validity of Modern Money Theory’s approach to macroeconomic policy, specifically monetary and fiscal policy. Whereas other papers have focused primarily on theoretical and doctrinal issues, this book focuses primarily on an analysis of MMT’s policy approach. Though drawing on academic literature, this book’s approach is empirical and policy-based, making it accessible to scholars and the public alike. It addresses a burning question in the policy and politics of the US and elsewhere where MMT is gaining a policy foothold, especially among progressive activists and politicians: Is MMT, in fact, a good guide for progressive macroeconomic policy? The main focus of this book is to explain why the answer to this question is no.
In the aftermath of the debates between Keynesians and monetarists, this book provides an overview of the most recent developments in monetary theory. Professor Visser provides an up-to-date survey including major issues such as crowding out, the new classical macroeconomics, the breakdown of the stable money demand function, buffer stocks and currency substitution.
A straw man version of modern monetary theory (MMT) is prevalent in economics, as seen in the IGM Forum Expert Panel poll. In order to criticize or support MMT, economists need to know what MMT really stands for. The job becomes difficult, however, because MMT rejects mainstream economics language and frameworks. This book intends to fill in the gap so that it is easy for economists and students trained in mainstream economics language to understand what MMT really is. A DSGE model of MMT is constructed for that purpose as well. The book thus takes no stance on whether MMT is correct or not - in fact, it would be argued that we should instead ask a different question: what should be our monetary system, in place of our current monetary system?
This book provides a new methodological approach to money and macroeconomics. Realizing that the abstract equilibrium models lacked descriptions of fundamental issues of a modern monetary economy, the focus of this book lies on the (stylized) balance sheets of the main actors. Money, after all, is born on the balance sheets of the central bank or commercial bank. While households and firms hold accounts at banks with deposits, banks hold an account at the central bank where deposits are called reserves. The book aims to explain how the two monetary circuits – central bank deposits and bank deposits – are intertwined. It is also shown how government spending injects money into the economy. Modern Monetary Theory and European Macroeconomics covers both the general case and then the Eurozone specifically. A very simple macroeconomic model follows which explains the major accounting identities of macroeconomics. Using this new methodology, the Eurozone crisis is examined from a fresh perspective. It turns out that not government debt but the stagnation of private sector debt was the major economic problem and that cuts in government spending worsened the economic situation. The concluding chapters discuss what a solution to the current problems of the Eurozone must look like, with scenarios that examine a future with and without a euro. This book provides a detailed balance sheet view of monetary and fiscal operations, with a focus on the Eurozone economy. Students, policy-makers and financial market actors will learn to assess the institutional processes that underpin a modern monetary economy, in times of boom and in times of bust.
Most people would agree that recessions are terrible things, they cause widespread fear amongst people that will be anxious about their savings, their livelihood or even their next meal. On a nationwide level, economic downturns are events akin to natural disasters, they do massive damage and for the most part are widely accepted by society as an "inevitability", rather than a "rarity" ...But do we really need recessions?To boot, is there such thing as "good debt"? And how could something good cause so many issues? On top of this is there any way that we could just run an economy without debt and would we be better off for doing so. Well, it turns out we probably can, and in fact, there are many economies around the world today that are developing rapidly while going without this system that we just assume is a given.If we can critically explore these questions it will offer insight into how our modern financial system works, and why it means that despite our best efforts we are almost destined to go into a recession once every 10 years or so.Furthermore, Modern Monetary Theory is something so simple yet so complex all at the same time, it does really involve divorcing your mind from how you personally interact with money to ultimately grasp how cash works at an economy-wide level.A lot of supporters of the theory push it as a cure-all to any economic ailments, and you know what with the money printers firing away like they are right now we may finally get a chance to find out if they are correct, but in reality, it's not a prescription to fix a broken economy as much as it is an insight into how modern economies work. The Wuhan coronavirus, the active impeachment of a sitting US president, the earthquake and volcanic eruption in the Philippines, the floods in Indonesia, the magnitude 7.7 earthquakes in the caribbean, Australia on fire and then buried in ice and then on fire again, let's explore what all these disaster mean to an economy both at a local and global level. Norway's Economy has been used as the poster child for a socialist mixed economy done right? Is it really the perfect economy or just another country that won the oil lottery?Australia's economy! The land down under where the richest people in the world live. So why of all people, are Australians sitting on such huge piles of money?Japan became the first of the modern Asian countries to experience massive sustained economic growth. Japan had a lot going for it after the end of the war, it was able to rebuild with the help of the allies and go through its own modern industrial revolution. In the 1960s, Japan was growing at a rate of 10% a year which for a national economy was unheard of at the time, this economic growth continued and japan was able to ride the wave of globalization as the world's low-cost manufacturer. Japan developed a huge car industry, it was at the forefront of consumer electronics and was working meticulously to make sure that this newfound wealth was being invested wisely into infrastructure like high-speed rail, airports and metro systems that would make their economy even more efficient. At its peak, there was so much wealth in japan that the real estate market of Tokyo had some pretty crazy anomalies. In the late 80's it was estimated that the imperial palace covering an area of 3.4 square kilometers in central Tokyo had a real estate land value greater than all of the real estate in California. Of course, the imperial palace was never for sale and this was based on the cost per square feet in the area but it still should give a good idea of just how much money was washing around in Japan. In this book, we will look at how this all went so wrong and what it can tell us about countries that are today where japan was 40 years ago.
The Nature and Role of Money in Capitalist Economies
Author: Louis-Philippe Rochon
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Category: Business & Economics
'This is a timely book. Being on modern theories of money - essentially the study of traditions of endogenous money - it is a welcome contribution to current thinking on monetary policy. The modern central bank view on money is that the rate of interest should be manipulated by central banks to achieve an inflation target with the money supply being the "residual". Although money is in effect endogenous, there is no theory that explains its behaviour. Modern Theories of Money is a serious attempt to sharpen existing views on the issue and fill gaps in an admirable manner.' - Philip Arestis, University of Cambridge, UK and Levy Economics Institute, US This book unites diverse heterodox traditions in the study of endogenous money - which until now have been confined to their own academic quarters - and explores their similarities and differences from both sides of the Atlantic. Bringing together perspectives from post-Keynesians, Circuitists and the Dijon School, the book continues the tradition of Keynes's and Kalecki's analysis of a monetary production economy, emphasising the similarities between the various approaches, and expanding the analytical breadth of the theory of endogenous money. The authors open new avenues for monetary research in order to fuel a renewed interest in the nature and role of money in capitalist economies, which is, the authors argue, one of the most controversial, and therefore fascinating, areas of economics.
Modern money theory (MMT) synthesizes several traditions from heterodox economics. Its focus is on describing monetary and fiscal operations in nations that issue a sovereign currency. As such, it applies Georg Friedrich Knapp's state money approach (chartalism), also adopted by John Maynard Keynes in his Treatise on Money. MMT emphasizes the difference between a sovereign currency issuer and a sovereign currency user with respect to issues such as fiscal and monetary policy space, ability to make all payments as they come due, credit worthiness, and insolvency. Following A. Mitchell Innes, however, MMT acknowledges some similarities between sovereign and nonsovereign issues of liabilities, and hence integrates a credit theory of money (or, "endogenous money theory," as it is usually termed by post-Keynesians) with state money theory. MMT uses this integration in policy analysis to address issues such as exchange rate regimes, full employment policy, financial and economic stability, and the current challenges facing modern economies: rising inequality, climate change, aging of the population, tendency toward secular stagnation, and uneven development. This paper will focus on the development of the "Kansas City" approach to MMT at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) and the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College.
Innovations in financial markets and in financial management, together with dramatic innovations in the substance and technique of monetary theory, have made it necessary to restate the theory of money and the theory of monetary policy. In order to provide a new monetary theory, the author treats fully the following material: choice of currency and the theory of convertibility; interest on money; speculation and rational expectations; implications of electronic-transfer settlement procedures for monetary theory, as well as other matters. The theories of Tobin are developed and exposited in detail, as is the work of Friedman.
This instructor’s manual complements the textbook Money: Theory and Practice which provides an introduction to modern monetary economics for advanced undergraduates, highlighting the lessons learned from the recent financial crisis. The manual provides teachers with exercises and examples that reflect both the core New Keynesian model and recent advances, taking into account financial frictions, and discusses recent research on an intuitive level based on simple static and two-period models.
In Economic Theology, Goodchild offers a philosophical analysis of the contemporary economy in terms of the way it structures credit and faith. The Great Financial Crisis of 2007 and onwards has exposed the extent to which the economy functions as a network of credits and debts. Credit and debt may now be understood as the driving force of economic behaviour. In this analysis, economic theories of markets and money are also ways of ordering trust. Similarly, the institutions of money, finance and banking provide the framework enabling trust and cooperation. Goodchild explores how reliance on such theories and institutions produces disequilibrium dynamics, growing inequalities, increasing enclosure, resource depletion and breakdown. Nevertheless, the failures of the system only intensify efforts to extend the system itself. Building on and extending Goodchild’s Theology of Money, the author exposes the extent to which humanity has become enslaved within theories and institutions of its own making. As the second volume in his Credit and Faith trilogy, Goodchild explains how the economy itself is a way of shaping time and attention, care and evaluation, trust and cooperation, so directly assuming a theological role. This volume extends the theological critique of the dynamics of financial capitalism.
The contributors to this edited collection argue that a flexible Job Guarantee program able to react to an economy’s fluctuating need for work would stabilize the labor standard, the value of employment in relation to money. During economic downturns, the program would expand to provide more public sector jobs in response to private sector layoffs. It would then contract when economic growth offered private sector employment opportunities. This flexible full employment program would create a balanced, perpetually active labor force, providing the macroeconomic stability necessary to define a functioning labor standard. Just as the gold standard measured the worth of money against gold reserves, John Maynard Keynes argued, so a labor standard ought to measure the value of money in terms of its labor equivalent. However, he failed to account for the fact that, unlike a gold standard, a labor standard does not have any kind of surety that money will continue to match its value in paid work over time. Together, the contributors argue that full employment would provide this missing security and allow authorities to define the value equivalencies of money and labor, the way that money once represented its exact equivalent in gold.
IN TRADITIONAL economics the theory of money and the theory of output have been treated separately with little or no tendency toward integration. First Wicksell and then Keynes gave impetus to the movement to combine the theory of money with that of output as a whole. Drawing on classical economics and the modern aggregate analysis of Keynes, Professor Hansen in this volume succeeds in writing a book which, unlike the classical studies, shows the importance of money in the theory of output as a whole; and which, unlike numerous modern writings (e.g., of Hawtrey, Douglas, Hayek), avoids overemphasizing the importance of money. Here is a book that shows what monetary policy can and cannot achieve and why it has often failed in the past; the necessary supplementary role of monetary policy as an aid to fiscal policy; and the manner of integrating monetary and fiscal policy, in periods of both depression and inflation, as prerequisites for assuring a stable economy. Professor Hansen has drawn on his rich experience over thirty-five years in the study of cycles, fiscal policy, and international economics, and on his many years as an economic practitioner to write a book that makes use of the riches of classical economics, as well as neoclassical and Keynesian economics. The book should, for many years to come, be the standard work on monetary theory and fiscal policy as determinants of output. The reader will find here not only the modern theory of money and fiscal policy, but also rich surveys covering the last 150 years, reinterpreted with the tools of modern economics. He will find also suggestions, based on theory and history, for a policy in the years to come that will yield the high levels of income and stability without which the survival of democratic institutions is most unlikely.