Learning, Fusion, and Reasoning within a Formal Linguistic Representation Framework
Author: Jonathan Lawry
Modelling with Words is an emerging modelling methodology closely related to the paradigm of Computing with Words introduced by Lotfi Zadeh. This book is an authoritative collection of key contributions to the new concept of Modelling with Words. A wide range of issues in systems modelling and analysis is presented, extending from conceptual graphs and fuzzy quantifiers to humanist computing and self-organizing maps. Among the core issues investigated are - balancing predictive accuracy and high level transparency in learning - scaling linguistic algorithms to high-dimensional data problems - integrating linguistic expert knowledge with knowledge derived from data - identifying sound and useful inference rules - integrating fuzzy and probabilistic uncertainty in data modelling
This title presents the most comprehensive existing "case study" of how the effects of damage in connectionist models can replicate the patterns of cognitive impairments that can arise in humans as a result of brain damage.
The process of learning words and languages may seem like an instinctual trait, inherent to nearly all humans from a young age. However, a vast range of complex research and information exists in detailing the complexities of the process of word learning. Theoretical and Computational Models of Word Learning: Trends in Psychology and Artificial Intelligence strives to combine cross-disciplinary research into one comprehensive volume to help readers gain a fuller understanding of the developmental processes and influences that makeup the progression of word learning. Blending together developmental psychology and artificial intelligence, this publication is intended for researchers, practitioners, and educators who are interested in language learning and its development as well as computational models formed from these specific areas of research.
In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in intension, is exploitable for all sorts of applications where only the elements which are useful are assembled in the micro‑systems needed to solve the problem in hand. Numerous definitions, schemata and examples involving many languages make the book accessible to students as well as academics and industrial researchers looking for new theories and methodologies for representations and problem solving wherever language and quality meet.
A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday
Author: Raymond Hickey
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
This work presents a collection of some 130 contributions covering a wide range of topics of interest to historical, theoretical and applied linguistics alike. A major theme is the development of English which is examined on several levels in the light of recent linguistic theory in various papers. The geographical dimension is also treated extensively with papers on controversial aspects of a variety of studies, as are topical linguistic matters from a more general perspective.
Reading Development and Difficulties is a comprehensive and balanced introduction to the development of the two core aspects of reading: good word reading skills and the ability to extract the overall meaning of a text. Unique in its balanced coverage of both word reading and reading comprehension development, this book is an essential resource for undergraduates studying literacy acquisition Offers wide coverage of the subject and discusses both typical development and the development of difficulties in reading Accessibly written for students and professionals with no previous background in reading development or reading difficulties Provides a detailed examination of the specific problems that underlie reading difficulties
Speech sound production is one of the most complex human activities: it is also one of the least well understood. This is perhaps not altogether surprising as many of the complex neurological and physiological processes involved in the generation and execution of a speech utterance remain relatively inaccessible to direct investigation, and must be inferred from careful scrutiny of the output of the system -from details of the movements of the speech organs themselves and the acoustic consequences of such movements. Such investigation of the speech output have received considerable impetus during the last decade from major technological advancements in computer science and biological transducing, making it possible now to obtain large quantities of quantative data on many aspects of speech articulation and acoustics relatively easily. Keeping pace with these advancements in laboratory techniques have been developments in theoretical modelling of the speech production process. There are now a wide variety of different models available, reflecting the different disciplines involved -linguistics, speech science and technology, engineering and acoustics. The time seems ripe to attempt a synthesis of these different models and theories and thus provide a common forum for discussion of the complex problem of speech production. Such an activity would seem particularly timely also for those colleagues in speech technology seeking better, more accurate phonetic models as components in their speech synthesis and automatic speech recognition systems.
The book is a collection of peer-reviewed scientific papers submitted by active researchers in the 36th National System Conference (NSC 2012). NSC is an annual event of the Systems Society of India (SSI), primarily oriented to strengthen the systems movement and its applications for the welfare of humanity. A galaxy of academicians, professionals, scientists, statesman and researchers from different parts of the country and abroad are invited to attend the Conference. The book presents various research articles in the area of system modelling in all disciplines of engineering sciences as well as socio-economic systems. The book can be used as a tool for further research.
ANTONIS BOTINIS 1. 1 Background This introduction provides essential information about the structure and the objects of study of this volume. Following the introduction, fourteen papers which represent current research on intonation are organised into five thematic sections: (I) Overview of Intonation, (II) Prominence and Focus, (III) Boundaries and Discourse, (IV) Intonation Modelling, and (V) Intonation Technology. Within the sections the papers are arranged thematically, although several papers which deal with various aspects of intonation and prosody are basically intersectional. As the title indicates, "Intonation: Analysis, Modelling and Technology" is a contribution to the study of prosody, with major emphasis on intonation. Intonation and tonal themes are thus the central object of the volume, although temporal and dynamic aspects are also taken into consideration by a good number of papers. Although tonal and prosodic distinctions have been dealt with throughout man's literate history with reference to the study of language, for example by classical philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, it is in recent decades that we have witnessed the most fertile growth in intonation studies, as with experimental phonetics and speech technology in general. As Rossi (this volume) points out, intonation research really began to blossom in the sixties with a multi fold increase in prosodic studies, reflected in contributions to the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), and in the international literature.
History of Cognitive Neuroscience documents the major neuroscientific experiments and theories over the last century and a half in the domain of cognitive neuroscience, and evaluates the cogency of the conclusions that have been drawn from them. Provides a companion work to the highly acclaimed Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience - combining scientific detail with philosophical insights Views the evolution of brain science through the lens of its principal figures and experiments Addresses philosophical criticism of Bennett and Hacker's previous book Accompanied by more than 100 illustrations
Developmental Processes in Real and Artificial Neural Networks
Author: Philip T. Quinlan
Publisher: Psychology Press
Connectionist Models of Development is an edited collection of essays on the current work concerning connectionist or neural network models of human development. The brain comprises millions of nerve cells that share myriad connections, and this book looks at how human development in these systems is typically characterised as adaptive changes to the strengths of these connections. The traditional accounts of connectionist learning, based on adaptive changes to weighted connections, are explored alongside the dynamic accounts in which networks generate their own structures as learning proceeds. Unlike most connectionist accounts of psychological processes which deal with the fully-mature system, this text brings to the fore a discussion of developmental processes. To investigate human cognitive and perceptual development, connectionist models of learning and representation are adopted alongside various aspects of language and knowledge acquisition. There are sections on artificial intelligence and how computer programs have been designed to mimic the development processes, as well as chapters which describe what is currently known about how real brains develop. This book is a much-needed addition to the existing literature on connectionist development as it includes up-to-date examples of research on current controversies in the field as well as new features such as genetic connectionism and biological theories of the brain. It will be invaluable to academic researchers, post-graduates and undergraduates in developmental psychology and those researching connectionist/neural networks as well as those in related fields such as psycholinguistics.
"In the last decades, information modelling and knowledge bases have become hot topics not only in academic communities related to information systems and computer science, but also in business areas where information technology is applied. This book aims to exchange scientific results and experiences achieved in computer science and other related disciplines using innovative methods and progressive approaches. A platform has been established drawing together researches as well as practitioners dealing with information modelling and knowledge bases. The main topics of this publication target the variety of themes in the domain of information modelling, conceptual analysis, design and specification of information systems, ontologies, software engineering, knowledge and process management, data and knowledge bases. The editors also aim at applying new progressive theories. To this end, much attention is also being paid to theoretical disciplines including cognitive science, artificial intelligence, logic, linguistics and analytical philosophy. The selected papers cover many areas of information modelling, namely theory of concepts, database semantics, knowledge representation, software engineering, WWW information management, context-based information retrieval, ontological technology, image databases, temporal and spatial databases, document data management, process management, and many others."
This book defines the wide application of the art of modelling. The main emphasis is on the imaging of dynamic processes which are analysed and subdivided into their atomic constituents by means of systems analysis. The cyclic structure and the stages of models’ set-up are explained. The evaluation of a model’s quality is regarded as a stochastic process. The aspects of grade used in different fields of sciences are brought into perspective. Thus, a quantitative concept of validity on the basis of conditional degrees of rational belief can be developed.
Development and Analysis of Multidisciplinary Dynamic System Models
Author: Wolfgang Borutzky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Nowadays, engineering systems are of ever-increasing complexity and must be c- sidered asmultidisciplinary systems composed of interacting subsystems or system components from different engineering disciplines. Thus, an integration of various engineering disciplines, e.g, mechanical, electrical and control engineering in ac- current design approach is required. With regard to the systematic development and analysis of system models,interdisciplinary computer aided methodologies are - coming more and more important. A graphical description formalism particularly suited for multidisciplinary s- tems arebondgraphs devised by Professor Henry Paynter in as early as 1959 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and in use since then all over the world. This monograph is devoted exclusively to the bond graph methodology. It gives a comprehensive, in-depth, state-of-the-art presentation including recent results sc- tered over research articles and dissertations and research contributions by the - thor to a number of topics. The book systematically covers the fundamentals of developing bond graphs and deriving mathematical models from them, the recent developments in meth- ology, symbolic and numerical processing of mathematical models derived from bond graphs. Additionally it discusses modern modelling languages, the paradigm of object-oriented modelling, modern software that can be used for building and for processing of bond graph models, and provides a chapter with small case studies illustrating various applications of the methodology.
The development and use of models of various objects is becoming a more common practice in recent days. This is due to the ease with which models can be developed and examined through the use of computers and appropriate software. Of those two, the former - high-speed computers - are easily accessible nowadays, and the latter - existing programs - are being updated almost continuously, and at the same time new powerful software is being developed. Usually a model represents correlations between some processes and their interactions, with better or worse quality of representation. It details and characterizes a part of the real world taking into account a structure of phenomena, as well as quantitative and qualitative relations. There are a great variety of models. Modelling is carried out in many diverse fields. All types of natural phenomena in the area of biology, ecology and medicine are possible subjects for modelling. Models stand for and represent technical objects in physics, chemistry, engineering, social events and behaviours in sociology, financial matters, investments and stock markets in economy, strategy and tactics, defence, security and safety in military fields. There is one common point for all models. We expect them to fulfil the validity of prediction. It means that through the analysis of models it is possible to predict phenomena, which may occur in a fragment of the real world represented by a given model. We also expect to be able to predict future reactions to signals from the outside world.
Data Mining is the science and technology of exploring large and complex bodies of data in order to discover useful patterns. It is extremely important because it enables modeling and knowledge extraction from abundant data availability. This book introduces soft computing methods extending the envelope of problems that data mining can solve efficiently. It presents practical soft-computing approaches in data mining and includes various real-world case studies with detailed results.
This volume aims to overcome sub-disciplinary boundaries in the study of linguistic variation - be it language-internal or cross-linguistic. Even though dialectologists, register analysts, typologists, and quantitative linguists all deal with linguistic variation, there is astonishingly little interaction across these fields. But the fourteen contributions in this volume show that these subdisciplines actually share many interests and methodological concerns in common. The chapters specifically converge in the following ways: First, they all seek to explore linguistic variation, within or across languages. Second, they are based on usage data, that is, on corpora of (more or less) authentic text or speech of different languages or language varieties. Third, all chapters are concerned with the joint analysis (also sometimes known as “aggregation” or “data synthesis”) of multiple phenomena, features, or measurements of some sort. And lastly, the contributors all marshal quantitative analysis techniques to analyse the data. In short, the volume explores the text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies, demonstrating that there is much mutual inspiration to be had by thinking outside the disciplinary box.