Understanding the physical behavior of volcanoes is key to mitigating the hazards active volcanoes pose to the ever-increasing populations living nearby. The processes involved in volcanic eruptions are driven by a series of interlinked physical phenomena, and to fully understand these, volcanologists must employ various physics subdisciplines. This book provides the first advanced-level, one-stop resource examining the physics of volcanic behavior and reviewing the state-of-the-art in modeling volcanic processes. Each chapter begins by explaining simple modeling formulations and progresses to present cutting-edge research illustrated by case studies. Individual chapters cover subsurface magmatic processes through to eruption in various environments and conclude with the application of modeling to understanding the other volcanic planets of our Solar System. Providing an accessible and practical text for graduate students of physical volcanology, this book is also an important resource for researchers and professionals in the fields of volcanology, geophysics, geochemistry, petrology and natural hazards.
This volume focuses on how advances in both remote sensing and modelling can be brought together to improve our understanding of the behaviour of active volcanoes. It includes review papers, papers reporting technical advances and case studies showing how the integration of remote-sensing observations with models can be put to good use.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Volcanic eruptions are common, with more than 50 volcanic eruptions in the United States alone in the past 31 years. These eruptions can have devastating economic and social consequences, even at great distances from the volcano. Fortunately many eruptions are preceded by unrest that can be detected using ground, airborne, and spaceborne instruments. Data from these instruments, combined with basic understanding of how volcanoes work, form the basis for forecasting eruptionsâ€"where, when, how big, how long, and the consequences. Accurate forecasts of the likelihood and magnitude of an eruption in a specified timeframe are rooted in a scientific understanding of the processes that govern the storage, ascent, and eruption of magma. Yet our understanding of volcanic systems is incomplete and biased by the limited number of volcanoes and eruption styles observed with advanced instrumentation. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing identifies key science questions, research and observation priorities, and approaches for building a volcano science community capable of tackling them. This report presents goals for making major advances in volcano science.
This book covers both the practical and theoretical aspects of catastrophe modelling for insurance industry practitioners and public policymakers. Written by authors with both academic and industry experience it also functions as an excellent graduate-level text and overview of the field. Ours is a time of unprecedented levels of risk from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Fortunately, it is also an era of relatively inexpensive technologies for use in assessing those risks. The demand from both commercial and public interests—including (re)insurers, NGOs, global disaster management agencies, and local authorities—for sophisticated catastrophe risk assessment tools has never been greater, and contemporary catastrophe modelling satisfies that demand. Combining the latest research with detailed coverage of state-of-the-art catastrophe modelling techniques and technologies, this book delivers the knowledge needed to use, interpret, and build catastrophe models, and provides greater insight into catastrophe modelling’s enormous potential and possible limitations. The first book containing the detailed, practical knowledge needed to support practitioners as effective catastrophe risk modellers and managers Includes hazard, vulnerability and financial material to provide the only independent, comprehensive overview of the subject, accessible to students and practitioners alike Demonstrates the relevance of catastrophe models within a practical, decision-making framework and illustrates their many applications Includes contributions from many of the top names in the field, globally, from industry, academia, and government Natural Catastrophe Risk Management and Modelling: A Practitioner’s Guide is an important working resource for catastrophe modelling analysts and developers, actuaries, underwriters, and those working in compliance or regulatory functions related to catastrophe risk. It is also valuable for scientists and engineers seeking to gain greater insight into catastrophe risk management and its applications.
Volcanic Hazards, Risks, and Disasters provides you with the latest scientific developments in volcano and volcanic research, including causality, impacts, preparedness, risk analysis, planning, response, recovery, and the economics of loss and remediation. It takes a geoscientific approach to the topic while integrating the social and economic issues related to volcanoes and volcanic hazards and disasters. Throughout the book case studies are presented of historically relevant volcanic and seismic hazards and disasters as well as recent catastrophes, such as Chile’s Puyehue volcano eruption in June 2011. Puts the expertise of top volcanologists, seismologists, geologists, and geophysicists selected by a world-renowned editorial board at your fingertips Presents you with the latest research—including case studies of prominent volcanoes and volcanic hazards and disasters—on causality, economic impacts, fatality rates, and earthquake preparedness and mitigation Numerous tables, maps, diagrams, illustrations, photographs, and video captures of hazardous processes support you in grasping key concepts
This collection of papers is based on a symposium held in 1987 at the Interna tional Union of Geology and Geodesy Congress in Vancouver, British Colum bia. The Symposium was planned as a follow-up to a session at the 1984 Geo logical Society of America Annual Meeting in Reno, Nevada, which dealt with the emplacement of silicic lava domes. In both cases, emphasis was placed on the physical and mechanical rather than chemical aspects of lava flow. The IUGG Symposium consisted of two lecture sessions, a poster session, and two discussion periods, and had 22 participants. The contributions to this volume are all based on papers presented in the various parts of the Sym posium. The motivation for studying lava flow mechanics is both practical and scientific. Scientists and government agencies seek to more effectively predict the hazards associated with active lavas. Recovering mineral resources found in lava flows and domes also requires an understanding of their emplacement. From a more theoretical standpoint, petrologists view lava studies as a way to directly observe the rheologic consequences of mixing crystals, bubbles, and solid blocks of country rock with silicate liquids. This information can then be used to constrain processes occurring in the concealed conduits, dikes, and chambers that feed flows and domes on the surface.
Volcanic gas reservoirs are the new natural gas frontier. Once thought too complex, too harsh on the drilling bit, and too difficult to characterize, reservoir engineers and petroleum geologists alike now manage more advanced seismic and logging tools, making these "impossible" field developments possible. Bridging meaningful information about these complicated provinces and linking various unconventional methods and techniques, Volcanic Gas Reservoir Characterization: Describes a set of leading-edge integrated volcanic gas reservoir characterization techniques, helping to ensure the effective development of the field Reveals the grade and relationship of volcanic stratigraphic sequence Presents field identification and prediction methods, and interpretation technology of reservoir parameters, relating these to similar complex fields such as shale These innovative approaches and creative methods have been successfully applied to actual development of volcanic gas reservoirs. By sharing the methods and techniques used in this region with reservoir engineers and petroleum geologists all over the world, those with better understanding of these unconventional basins will begin to consider volcanic rock like any other reservoir. Summarizes the research and explains detailed case studies of volcanic gas reservoir developments, showing the latest achievements and lessons learned Supplies knowledge on volcanic gas reservoir basins to provide meaningful insight into similar complex reservoirs such as shale, coal bed methane, and heavy oil basins Contains extensive methodology, strong practicality and high innovation, making this an ideal book for both the practicing and seasoned reservoir engineer and petroleum geologists working with complex reservoirs