Philosophically, there is a book which was a tremendous experience for me: Eino Kaila's hychology of the Person ality _ His thesis that man lives strictly according to his needs - negative and positive - was shattering to me, but terribly true. And I built on this ground. Ingmar Bergman J 1. This introductory essay is neither intended to be a full presentation nor to be a critical evaluation of the contributions to philosophy made by Eino Kaila. Kaila's work will speak to the reader through the four papers here published in English translation from the German. They belong in the tra dition of the Vienna Circle and of logical empiricism. They cover, however, only one period or sector of Kaila's rich and varied life-work. This is the sector best integrated into the mainstream of contemporary philosophic thinking. The primary aim of this essay is to portray an impressive intellectual personality and to make a modest contribution to Finnish and Scandinavian intellectual history. Much of its content may be thought to be of 'local' relevance only. But considering the position which Kaila held in his country and considering his decisive influence on the development of philosophy in Finland, I hope that this local background will also interest an international circle of readers.
This volume focuses on Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC), a powerful tool allowing luminescence lifetime measurements to be made with high temporal resolution, even on single molecules. Combining spectrum and lifetime provides a “fingerprint” for identifying such molecules in the presence of a background. Used together with confocal detection, this permits single-molecule spectroscopy and microscopy in addition to ensemble measurements, opening up an enormous range of hot life science applications such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and measurement of Förster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) for the investigation of protein folding and interaction. Several technology-related chapters present both the basics and current state-of-the-art, in particular of TCSPC electronics, photon detectors and lasers. The remaining chapters cover a broad range of applications and methodologies for experiments and data analysis, including the life sciences, defect centers in diamonds, super-resolution microscopy, and optical tomography. The chapters detailing new options arising from the combination of classic TCSPC and fluorescence lifetime with methods based on intensity fluctuation represent a particularly unique highlight.
The Network Manager's Handbook is a one-of-a-kind resource featuring critical network technology assessments and career development advice from some of the most highly respected consultants and network managers in the field. This answer-filled compendium provides a rich blend of precise knowledge and real-world experience, the result of many thousands of hours of actual hands-on work in the field. The book gives you proven, successful, economical solutions to real-world problems associated with the host of new network technologies.
This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis, Pulsed Interleaved Excitation, and raster image correlation spectroscopy and number and brightness analysis. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis, pulsed interleaved excitation, and raster image correlation spectroscopy and number and brightness analysis.
This volume brings together a number of the leading practitioners and exponents in the field of virtual reality (VR), and explores some of the main issues in the area and its associated hardware and software technology. The main components of the current generation of virtual reality systems are outlined, and major developments of VR systems are discussed. * SPECIAL FEATURES * This volume brings together some of the leading practitioners and exponents in the field of VR, and explores some of the main issues in the area and its associated hardware and software technology. * The main components of the current generation of cirtual reality systems are outlined, and major developments of Vr systems are discussed, focussing of key areas such as hardware, software, techniques, application interfaces and ethical issues. * The book contains a comprehensive bibliography enabling the reader to follow up particular areas of specialism. It contains 16 pages of colour plates.
This thesis presents a novel single-molecule spectroscopy method that, for the first time, allows the dipole orientations and fluorescence lifetimes of individual molecules to be measured simultaneously. These two parameters are needed to determine the position of individual molecules with nanometer accuracy near a metallic structure. Proof-of-principle experiments demonstrating the value of this new single-molecule localization concept are also presented. Lastly, the book highlights potential applications of the method in biophysics, molecular physics, soft matter and structural biology.
A Platform for Integrated Marketing ; Case Study on U.S. Retailing
Author: Inga D. Schmidt
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
Category: Business & Economics
According to market forecasts, e-commerce will attain growing importance in the near future: Business transactions are changing. However, until today, the subject lacks profound findings about possible challenges and advantages, as well as about success factors of acceptance. The present book informs about the trends in business-to-consumer e-commerce both from the retailer's and the customer's point of view. Additionally, it contains a case study of a well known U.S. retailer and a corresponding customer survey. Based on the results of this study, customer profiles, market segments and strategies are derived. The study shows that e-commerce is far more than a mere selling and distributing channel. It is a platform for an integrated marketing that takes customers' needs into consideration while at the same time enforces customer focus. While it may be too early to predict its ultimate impacts, e-commerce is certainly a major source of business opportunity today. The greatest threat may be the risk of not acting on this occasion.
Will your agency or students have the training to use the Internet in practice? Human Services Online: A New Arena for Service Delivery focuses on ways that Human Services are using the Internet for service delivery, community education, collaboration, advocacy, social change, and resource development. This valuable book highlights the array of innovative services now being offered on the Internet and provides guidelines and cautions for human service professionals in using the Internet to enhance their services. Human Services Online: A New Arena for Service Delivery provides much-needed research and empirical evaluation related to human service online activities and points to areas where future research efforts should be directed. The book describes and evaluates cutting-edge Internet-based services, ethical and legal threats to agencies and consumers that may result from online activities, and theoretical discussions of issues that impact human services as consumers and human service agencies increasingly come online. Topics addressed in Human Services Online: A New Arena for Service Delivery include: online therapy/counseling online fundraising online recruitment of volunteers and virtual volunteer programs online consultation, continuing education, and training ethical, legal, and liability issues related to Web sites and online support online support groups and self-help online advocacy and activism promoting access for under-represented populations use of the Internet to impact specific social problems such as domestic violence or HIV/AIDS Human Services Online: A New Arena for Service Delivery provides guidelines and specific suggestions for agencies considering developing online services. The book examines model programs and their effectiveness so that other agencies can replicate them in their own areas, describes cutting-edge online services that today's human services students will need to be aware of as they enter the job market, and provides information for agencies that will enhance their ability to solicit volunteers and contributions on the Internet.
In 1984 Desmond O’Connor and David Phillips published their comprehensive book „Time-correlated Single Photon Counting“. At that time time-correlated s- gle photon counting, or TCSPC, was used primarily to record fluorescence decay functions of dye solutions in cuvettes. From the beginning, TCSPC was an am- ingly sensitive and accurate technique with excellent time-resolution. However, acquisition times were relatively slow due to the low repetition rate of the light sources and the limited speed of the electronics of the 70s and early 80s. Moreover, TCSPC was intrinsically one-dimensional, i.e. limited to the recording of the wa- form of a periodic light signal. Even with these limitations, it was a wonderful te- nique. More than 20 years have elapsed, and electronics and laser techniques have made impressive progress. The number of transistors on a single chip has approximately doubled every 18 months, resulting in a more than 1,000-fold increase in compl- ity and speed. The repetition rate and power of pulsed light sources have increased by about the same factor.
Achievements and Challenges in the Intersection of Agent Technology and Ambient Intelligence
Author: T. Bosse
Publisher: IOS Press
The concept of an intelligent agent – a computational system capable of performing certain tasks autonomously – derived from the growing potential of digital computers in the mid 20th century and had been widely adopted by the early 1990s. Partly in parallel with this concept, the perspective of ambient intelligence (AmI) emerged in the late 1990s. Agent technology and AmI have many similarities, and the main purpose of this book is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of the scientific area that integrates these two. The book addresses a wide variety of topics related to agents and AmI, including theoretical, practical, design, implementation, ethical and philosophical issues. The 12 chapters are arranged in four sections. The first consists of three chapters discussing ethical and philosophical issues; the second part explores various approaches that can be used to develop agent-based AmI Systems; the third part contains three chapters that share the goal to endow AmI systems with useful properties like intelligence and adaptivity and the last section presents concrete applications of agent-based AmI systems. This book provides an insight into recent achievements and future challenges at the intersection of agent technology and ambient intelligence and will assist the development of more intelligent, flexible, effective and user-friendly systems as well as posing critical questions about the future of the role of agents within the AmI perspective.
How are human actions shaped by the materiality of media? Contemporary media leads us more than ever to an ‘acting at a distance,’ an acting entangled with the materiality of communication and the mediality of transmission. This book explores this crucial phenomenon thereby introducing urgent questions of human interaction, the binding and breaking of time and space, and the entanglement of the material and the immaterial. Three vivid inquiries deal with histories and theories of mediality and materiality: John Durham Peters looks at episodes of simultaneity and synchronization. Christina Vagt discusses the agency of computer models against the backdrop of aesthetic theories by Henri Bergson and Hans Blumenberg, and Florian Sprenger discusses early electrical transmissions through copper wire and the temporality of instantaneity.
A comprehensive text and reference book for osteopaths, Osteopathic Energetics covers the underlying principles of osteopathic palpation from a biodynamic and morphodynamic perspective and their application in the cranial and the spinal cord. It emphasises the importance of considering the patient’s inner consciousness as well as their physical self, discusses epigenetic influences and explores new insights into the role played by biological rhythms. It views osteopathy with respect to the development of paradigms within the healing arts as well as acknowledging the importance of conceptual foundations to practice. The resulting implications for therapeutic interaction, the principles of diagnosis and treatment form the core of the book and these fundamental principles are then applied specifically to the cranial sphere primarily focusing on the brain itself. The original German version of this book has been very successful and is now in its second edition. This translation makes this informative and authoritative book accessible to an English speaking audience. Liem has gathered a highly qualified team of internationally acclaimed teachers and practitioners to bring their insight, principles and approaches to practice.
This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the instrumental principles of multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and typical applications of the technique. Written by an originator of the technique and by sucessful users, it covers the basic principles of the technique, its interaction with optical imaging methods and its application to a wide range of experimental tasks in life sciences and clinical research. The book is recommended for all users of time-resolved detection techniques in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of live systems, live cell microscopy, clinical imaging, spectroscopy of single molecules, and other applications that require the detection of low-level light signals at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.
Last year we launched Volume 1 of the Reviews in Fluorescence series. The volume was well-received by the fluorescence community, with many e-mails and letters providing valuable feedback, we subsequently thank you all for your continued support. After the volume was published we were most pleased to learn that the volume is to be citable and indexed, appearing on the ISI database. Subsequently, as well as the series having an impact number in due course, individual chapters will appear on the database and be both citable and keyword searchable. We feel that this will be a powerful resource to both authors and readers, further disseminating leading-edge fluorescence based material. Our intention with this new series is to both disseminate and archive the most recent developments in both past and emerging fluorescence based disciplines. While all chapters are invited, we welcome and indeed encourage the fluorescence community to suggest areas of interest that they feel need to be covered by the series. In this new volume. Reviews in Fluorescence 2005, Volume 2, we have invited reviews in areas such as: Multi-dimensional Time-correlated Single Photon Counting; Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy; RNA folding; Lanthanide Probes and Fluorescent Biosensors to name but just a few. We hope you find this volume a useful resource and we look forward to receiving any suggestions you may have. Finally we would like to thank the authors for their timely articles, Caroleann Aitken for the fi-ont cover design, Kadir Asian for typesetting and Mary Rosenfeld for administrative support.
Science Education - The Second Career of Robert Karplus
Author: Robert Karplus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Robert Karplus, a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, became a leader in the movement to reform elementary school science in the 1960s. This book selects the enduring aspects of his work and presents them for the scientists and science educators of today. In an era when `science education for ALL students' has become the clarion call, the insights and works of Robert Karplus are as relevant now as they were in the 1960s, '70s, and '80s. This book tries to capture the essence of his life and work and presents selections of his published articles in a helpful context.
Whether you're an experienced webmaster new to OpenVMS or an old OpenVMS hand new to webservers, this book will save you time and help you do your job better. The book points out similarities and differences between Unix and VMS, contains a management-friendly explanation of VMS's suitability for 24x7 operation, explains web concepts like authentication and access control models clearly (including honest discussion of drawbacks and weaknesses). Clear examples show how to configure each of the three webservers to accomplish specific goals, and comparisons will help you choose which server to run. If you're using or considering using a VMS webserver, this book is for you. OpenVMS with Apache, OSU and WASD also discusses specific tasks, such as how to port CGI programs from other operating systems, and gives working examples in PERL, Python, and DCL. One chapter also covers database connectivity for VMS-based CGI programs. · Use OpenVMS to provide reliable, full-featured web service for your business · Find information not available anywhere else for OpenVMS, whose unbeatable reliability makes it the web server of choice for institutions that can't afford downtime for their websites · Learn from numerous examples and step-by-step procedures how to do the same task in different servers