Methods of Pesticide Exposure Assessment

Author: Patricia B. Curry

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 747

This book is a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Workshop on Methods of Pesticide Exposure Assessment held in Ottawa, Canada, on October 5-8, 1993. The event was a joint effort of Health Canada and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and was officially supported by the United States Environmental Agency and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The goal of the workshop was to examine current issues in the field of pesticide exposure assessment with the aim of reaching an internationally harmonized approach to methods of exposure assessment. With regulatory agencies of OECD Member countries moving towards the harmonization of data requirements, it was timely and beneficial to bring together international experts in the field of pesticide exposure assessment to discuss current issues. Approximately 60 delegates and 20 observers participated, including individuals from 15 different countries representing academia, government, industry and international organizations. A guidance document on methods of pesticide exposure assessment was presented as a means to achieving the goal of international for critique and discussion harmonization. After extensive discussion, the workshop delegates agreed in principle to procedures for revising the guidance document. Following revision and further review by a designated peer review group, the revised document will be submitted to the OECD for consideration as a draft OECD Guidance Document on pesticide exposure assessment methods. Both the revised and original documents are included in these proceedings.

Methods of Pesticide Exposure Assessment

Author: Patricia B. Curry

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 569

This book is a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Workshop on Methods of Pesticide Exposure Assessment held in Ottawa, Canada, on October 5-8, 1993. The event was a joint effort of Health Canada and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and was officially supported by the United States Environmental Agency and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The goal of the workshop was to examine current issues in the field of pesticide exposure assessment with the aim of reaching an internationally harmonized approach to methods of exposure assessment. With regulatory agencies of OECD Member countries moving towards the harmonization of data requirements, it was timely and beneficial to bring together international experts in the field of pesticide exposure assessment to discuss current issues. Approximately 60 delegates and 20 observers participated, including individuals from 15 different countries representing academia, government, industry and international organizations. A guidance document on methods of pesticide exposure assessment was presented as a means to achieving the goal of international for critique and discussion harmonization. After extensive discussion, the workshop delegates agreed in principle to procedures for revising the guidance document. Following revision and further review by a designated peer review group, the revised document will be submitted to the OECD for consideration as a draft OECD Guidance Document on pesticide exposure assessment methods. Both the revised and original documents are included in these proceedings.

Occupational and Residential Exposure Assessment for Pesticides

Author: Claire A. Franklin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 644

This timely publication concentrates on the exposure to pesticides by agricultural workers and residential users of pesticides through inhalation and physical contact. The book discusses more recently discovered risks such as pesticides on indoor carpets and includes new trends in data interpretation. Occupational & Residential Exposure Assessment for Pesticides complements the other title on pesticide exposure in the series - Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water, by Hamilton/Crossley and is a must for all professionals in the Pesticide Industry as well as academics.

Exposure and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Use in Agriculture

Approaches, Tools and Advances

Author: Claudio Colosio

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 412

View: 913

Exposure and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Use in Agriculture: Approaches, Tools and Advances offers an overview of the different methods available in toxicology for pesticide exposure and risk assessment, ranging from the regulatory field, to in-field research studies. The book provides technical background on each method, describing known and grounded tools, new uses of tools and development prospects. This book is ideal for researchers in pesticide toxicology, exposure toxicology, toxicologic risk assessment, occupational hygiene and medicine, and pesticide toxicology as well as occupational health and industrial hygiene practitioners, regulatory experts of corporate and public bodies, and advanced students. Covers pesticide exposure and risk assessment, ranging from fundamentals to advanced theory Explains methods that are useful for both experts and non-experts Details the use of each method for exposure and risk assessment, also including links to additional resources and further reading

Pesticide Risk Assessment in Rice Paddies

Theory and Practice

Author: Ettore Capri

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 255

View: 170

Rice is cultivated throughout the world under submerged conditions. The high water requirements and the heavy pesticide load used in rice paddies worldwide have resulted in contamination of associated surface water, such as streams, ditches, rivers and lakes. The uniform risk assessment approach which has been developed for other crops is not applicable to rice paddies, because of the specific conditions applied to rice cultivation. Pesticide Risk Assessment in Rice Paddies: Theory and Practice fills the gap in information on this subject. Written by experts, this book summarizes the methods used for pesticide risk assessment in rice paddies, the limitations and problems encountered and future developments. It also examines the various agronomic, pesticide application and risk assessment approaches used in different rice cultivated zones in Asia, America and Europe and is an essential reference for those working in this area. * The only up-to-date book dealing with pesticide risk assessment in the flooded conditions of rice paddies * Offers guidelines on the use and application of existing modeling tools, specific for rice cultivation * Presents the differences and similarities in rice cropping systems and how these relate to pesticide risk assessment

Worker Exposure to Agrochemicals

Methods for Monitoring and Assessment

Author: R. Honeycutt

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 387

Methods for determining exposure of pesticides to agricultural workers have been developing for over thirty years. You may ask: what more do we need to know? Worker Exposure to Agrochemicals provides the answer. It contains a compilation of research papers that examine this issue from every angle. Even with all the information available, there still remains an intense debate over what method - dermal deposition or biological monitoring - provides better results when measuring worker exposure. Researchers almost never realize the same results in concurrent experiments using both methods. The question is: which process is more accurate? Worker Exposure to Agrochemicals examines the effectiveness of both procedures. Two chapters describe the simultaneous use of both methods and their outcome. The remaining chapters cover risk assessment, protective clothing, Canadian dosimetry, "Jazzercise," a tiered approach to exposure estimation, modeling reentry exposure, performing a dislodgeable residue study, and GLP requirements.

Pesticide Risk Assessment

Author: Sumitra Arora

Publisher: CABI

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 358

View: 792

Pesticide Toxicity to Non-target Organisms

Exposure, Toxicity and Risk Assessment Methodologies

Author: Johnson Stanley

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 502

View: 500

The pesticide should cause effect on the target pests and be selective enough to spare the non-target beneficial. The book deals with the pesticide toxicity to predators, parasitoids and microbes which are used for pest management in the agroecosystem. The other beneficials exposed to pesticides are pollinators, earthworms, silkworm and fishes. The book contains information on the modes of pesticide exposure and toxicity to the organisms, sub-lethal effects of insecticides and method of toxicity assessment, risk assessment of pesticidal application in the field. The purpose of the work is to compile and present the different procedures to assess pesticide poising in organisms related to the agroecosystem along with discussions on risk assessment procedures with clear comparison of toxicity of pesticides to target pests and non target beneficial organisms.

The Practice of Consumer Exposure Assessment

Author: Gerhard Heinemeyer

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 584

View: 905

This book closes a current gap by providing the scientific basis for consumer exposure assessment in the context of regulatory risk assessment. Risk is defined as the likelihood of an event occurring and the severity of its effects. The margin between the dose that leads to toxic effects and the actual dose of a chemical is identified by estimating population exposure. The objective of this book is to provide an introduction into the scientific principles of consumer exposure assessment, and to describe the methods used to estimate doses of chemicals, the statistics applied and computer tools needed. This is presented through the backgrounds of the special fields in exposure analysis, such as exposure via food and by the use of consumer products, toys, clothing and other items. As a general concept, human exposure is also understood to include exposure via the environment and from the work setting. In this context, the specific features of consumer exposure are pointed out and put into the context of regulation, in particular food safety, chemicals safety (REACh) and consumer product safety. The book is structured into three parts: The first part deals with the general concepts of consumer exposure as part of the overall risk analysis framework of risk characterization, risk assessment and risk communication. It describes the three basic features of exposure assessment (i) the exposure scenario (ii) the exposure model and (iii) the exposure parameters, addressing external and internal exposure. Also, the statistical presentation of data to characterize populations, in connection with variability, uncertainty and quality of information and the presentation of exposure evaluation results is described. The second part deals with the specific issues of exposure assessment, exposure via food consumption, exposure from use of consumer products, household products, toys, cosmetic products, textiles, pesticides and others. This part also covers methods for acquisition of data for exposure estimations, including the relevant information from regulations needed to perform an accurate exposure assessment. The third part portrays a prospect for further needs in the development and improvement of consumer exposure assessment, as well as international activities and descriptions of the work of institutions that are involved in exposure assessment on the regulatory and scientific level. And conversely, it creates the rationale for the exposure assessment details necessary to satisfy regulatory needs such as derivation of upper limits and risk management issues.

From Pesticide Degradation Products to Legacy Toxicants and Emerging Contaminants

Novel Analytical Methods, Approaches, and Modeling

Author: Norman D. Forsberg

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Crayfish

Page: 175

View: 210

Environmental toxicologists and public health officials are responsible for assisting in the identification, management, and mitigation of public health hazards. As a result, there is a continued need for robust analytical tools that can aid in the rapid quantification and characterization of chemical exposure. In the first research phase, we demonstrated that a current tool for estimating human organophosphate pesticide exposure, measuring dialkyl phosphate (DAPs) metabolites in urine as chemical biomarkers of pesticide exposure, could represent exposure to DAPs themselves and not to pesticides. We showed that DAPs are metabolically stable, have high oral bioavailability, and are rapidly excreted in the urine following oral exposure. Results suggest that DAP measurements may lead to overestimates of human organophosphate pesticide exposure. In the second phase of research, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) based analytical method was developed and validated for quantifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biotic matrices with fat contents that ranged from 3 to 11%. Our method improved PAH recoveries 50 to 200% compared to traditional QuEChERS methods, performed as well or better than state of the art Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extraction methods, had sensitivity useful for chemical exposure assessments, and reduced sample preparation costs by 10 fold. The validated QuEChERS method was subsequently employed in a human exposure assessment. Little is known about how traditional Native American fish smoke-preserving methods impact PAH loads in smoked foods, Tribal PAH exposure, or health risks. Differences in smoked salmon PAH loads were not observed between Tribal smoking methods, where smoking methods were controlled for smoking structure and smoke source. PAH loads in Tribally smoked fish were up to 430 times greater than those measured in commercially available smoked fish. It is not likely that dietary exposure to non-carcinogenic PAHs at heritage ingestion rates of 300 grams per day poses an appreciable risk to human health. However, levels of PAHs in traditionally smoked fish may pose and elevated of risk of cancer if consumed at high rates over a life time. Accurately estimating PAH exposure in cases where aquatic foods become contaminated is often hindered by sample availability. To overcome this challenge, we developed a novel analytical approach to predict PAH loads in resident crustacean tissues based on passive sampling device (PSD) PAH measurements and partial least squares regression. PSDs and crayfish collected from 9 sites within, and outside of, the Portland Harbor Superfund site captured a wide range of PAH concentrations in a matrix specific manner. Partial least squares regression of crayfish PAH concentrations on freely dissolved PAH concentrations measured by PSDs lead to predictions that generally differed by less than 12 parts per billion from measured values. Additionally, most predictions (> 90%) were within 3-fold of measured values, while state of the art bioaccumulation factor approaches typically differ by 5 to 15-fold compared to measured values. In order to accurately characterize chemical exposure, new analytical approaches are needed that can simulate chemical changes in bioavailable PAH mixtures resulting from natural and/or remediation processes. An approach based on environmental passive sampling and in-laboratory UVB irradiation was developed to meet this need. Standard PAH mixtures prepared in-lab and passive sampling device extracts collected from PAH contaminated environments were used as model test solutions. UV irradiation of solutions reduced PAH levels 20 to 100% and lead to the formation of several toxic oxygenated-PAHs that have been previously measured in the environment. Site specific differences in oxygenated-PAH formation were also observed. The research presented in this dissertation can be used to advance chemical exposure estimation techniques, rapidly and cost-effectively quantify a suite of PAHs in biotic tissues, and simulate the effect of abiotic transformation processes on the bioavailable fraction of environmental contaminants.

Pesticide Toxicity to Non-target Organisms

Exposure, Toxicity and Risk Assessment Methodologies

Author: Johnson Stanley

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 502

View: 319

The pesticide should cause effect on the target pests and be selective enough to spare the non-target beneficial. The book deals with the pesticide toxicity to predators, parasitoids and microbes which are used for pest management in the agroecosystem. The other beneficials exposed to pesticides are pollinators, earthworms, silkworm and fishes. The book contains information on the modes of pesticide exposure and toxicity to the organisms, sub-lethal effects of insecticides and method of toxicity assessment, risk assessment of pesticidal application in the field. The purpose of the work is to compile and present the different procedures to assess pesticide poising in organisms related to the agroecosystem along with discussions on risk assessment procedures with clear comparison of toxicity of pesticides to target pests and non target beneficial organisms.

Methods to Assess Adverse Effects of Pesticides on Non-Target Organisms

Author: Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals

Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 344

Introduction, general conclusions and recommendations. Methods to assess exposure to pesticides: data acquisition and monitoring techniques. Methods to assess toxic effects of pesticides in humans. Methods to assess toxic effects on ecosystems. Management technologies: integrated pest management. Methods to evaluate exposures to pesticides. Role of evaluative models to assess exposure to pesticides. Exposure assessment models: accuracy and validity. Assessment of acute toxicity of pesticides on humans. Assessment of chronic effects of pesticides on humans. Ecological effects of pesticides on non-target species in terrestrial ecosystems. Methods to assess toxicity to aquatic systems in functional ecosystems. Methods to assess adverse effects on plants. Methods to evaluate adverse consequences of genetic changes caused by pesticides. Methods to anticipate effects of biotechnology on integrated pest management.

Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Ecological Risks of Pesticides

Author: William J. Warren-Hicks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 894

While current methods used in ecological risk assessments for pesticides are largely deterministic, probabilistic methods that aim to quantify variability and uncertainty in exposure and effects are attracting growing interest from industries and governments. Probabilistic methods offer more realistic and meaningful estimates of risk and hence, potentially, a better basis for decision-making. Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Ecological Risks of Pesticides examines the applicability of probabilistic methods for ecological risk assessment for pesticides and explores their appropriateness for general use. The book presents specific methods leading to probabilistic decisions concerning the registration and application of pesticides and includes case studies illustrating the application of statistical methods. The authors discuss Bayesian inference, first-order error analysis, first-order (non-hierarchical) Monte Carlo methods, second-order Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods, interval analysis, and probability bounds analysis. They then examine how these methods can be used in assessments for other environmental stressors and contaminants. There are many methods of analyzing variability and uncertainty and many ways of presenting the results. Inappropriate use of these methods leads to misleading results, and experts differ on what is appropriate. Disagreement about which methods are appropriate will result in wasted resources, conflict over findings, and reduced credibility with decision makers and the public. There is, therefore, a need to reach a consensus on how to choose and use appropriate methods, and to present this in the form of guidance for prospective users. Written in a clear and concise style, the book examines how to use probabilistic methods within a risk-based decision paradigm.

Human Pesticide Exposure Assessment

Naled (a Organophosphate Insecticide for a Variety of Agricultural and Non-agricultural Uses)

Author: Michael H. Dong

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Insecticides

Page: 53

View: 689

Occupational Hazards Of Pesticide Exposure

Sampling, Monitoring, Measuring

Author: Donald J. Ecobichon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 679

With three million intoxications a year, global concern about occupational exposure to pesticides makes it crucial that occupational health professionals be able monitor pesticide exposure. With a useful analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of classic and modern techniques, Occupational Hazards of Pesticide Exposure permits professionals to undertake these tasks with techniques best suited to a given situation. Includes descriptions and examples of how to: o Quantify aerial drift of pesticide sprays o Determine on-target/off-target loss of pesticide o Measure disposition of pesticides on surfaces o Detect translocation of residues for air and surfaces to skin o Measure absorption through the skin o Quantify residues or metabolites in biological fluids o Determine the extent of neurological impairment

Characterizing Dietary Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides, Incorporating Information on Organic Food Consumption, for Use in Epidemiological Research

Author: Cynthia Leigh Curl

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 145

View: 426

Concern exists about the potential for low-level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) to lead to neurological and cognitive health effects. OPs are the most widely used insecticides in American agricultural, and diet is thought to be the primary route by which the general public is exposed to OPs. The United States Department of Agriculture permits food to be certified "organic" when grown according to specific regulations, including prohibitions on the use of most synthetic pesticides. While organic food consumption is known to reduce exposure to OPs, health benefits from choosing organic food have not been demonstrated. We aimed to develop a novel method to assess long-term dietary OP exposure, designed to avoid many of the limitations of the existing methods of OP exposure assessment. Using a combination of individual-level information on dietary intake and national-level data on pesticide residue levels on food items, we estimated long-term dietary OP exposure in a multi-city, multi-ethnic population of over 4,000 adults. We assessed the face validity of this method by evaluating its comparability with urinary biomonitoring in a subset of participants. Among individuals with conventional diets, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher urinary metabolite concentrations. We also found that metabolite concentrations were significantly lower in people reporting more frequent consumption of organic produce. We further aimed to better understand the individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics associated with organic food consumption. We observed that women, younger individuals and those with higher education were more likely to consume organic food, and that neighborhood produce availability was also associated with organic food consumption. Our third and final aim was to evaluate the association between the long-term dietary OP exposure we developed and cognitive outcomes, accounting for the individual- and neighborhood-level variables that were associated with organic food consumption. We observed a relationship between increasing dietary OP exposure and decrements in the phonological loop component of working memory, but did not find OP exposure to be associated with three other cognitive endpoints. The results of this study suggest that the new method we have developed to assess dietary pesticide exposure will be useful in future epidemiological studies of the health effects of low-level exposure to OPs.