Material Synthesis: Fusing the Physical and the Computational Guest-edited by Achim Menges A new understanding of the material in architecture is fast emerging. Designers are no longer conceiving of the digital realm as separate from the physical world. Instead computation is being regarded as the key interface for material exploration and vice versa. This represents a significant perceptual shift in which the materiality of architecture is no longer seen to be a fixed property and passive receptor of form, but is transformed into an active generator of design and an adaptive agent of architectural performance. In stark contrast to previous linear and mechanistic modes of fabrication and construction, materialisation is now beginning to coexist with design as explorative robotic processes. This represents a radical departure from both the trite modernist emphasis on 'truth to materials' and the dismissal of materials by the previous generation of digital architects. The issue features designers, researchers and thinkers that are at the forefront of exploring new modes of material enquiry and its deep interrelationship with technology, biology and culture. Through their work, which unfolds from multifaceted alliances between the fields of design, engineering and natural sciences, it seeks to trace the emergence of a novel material culture in architecture. Architectural and engineering contributors include: Sean Ahlquist, Martin Bechthold, Philippe Block, Karola Dierichs, Jan Knippers, Achim Menges, Neri Oxman, Steffen Reichert and Tobias Schwinn. Scientific and philosophical perspectives provided by: Mario Carpo, Manuel De Landa, Neil Gershenfeld and Thomas Speck. Features the design research of: Harvard's Material Processes and Systems Group, MIT's Mediated Matter Group and Stuttgart University's Institute for Computational Design.
Exposes a Powerful Material-Making Tool Dedicated to the physical, chemical, and structural transformations that take place during combustion synthesis (CS) of advanced materials, Combustion for Material Synthesis analyzes the nature of solid flame phenomenon and provides readers with undisputed proof that ‘fire’ is a powerful tool used in making materials. Of interest to specialists in the field of materials engineering, this book explores the physical and chemical principles of synthesis of materials in the self-sustained combustion mode. It describes mechanisms for a variety of solid–solid and gas–solid reactions and examines structure and properties of different materials produced by CS. The authors discuss a wide range of topics, including phenomenology, theory, experimental methods and observations, as well as properties of the product synthesized and approaches for large-scale materials production using the combustion synthesis technique. They examine conventional concepts and present recent breakthroughs in the field of materials synthesis by rapid self-sustained reactions that include fabrication of different nanomaterials. They compare CS with other methods, factoring in different types of combustion processes, including processes that can occur in a vacuum, inert gas, or oxygen-free atmosphere. Covering research on topics that have been around for a while, but not widely circulated, this work: Outlines in detail both fundamental aspects of CS, including modern theoretical approaches and advanced in situ experimental methods Examines the advantages and disadvantages, achievements, and challenges remained in heterogeneous combustion used for material synthesis Explores the emergence of a new fundamental direction in material science, i.e., structural macrokinetics Details new technologies that are based on fundamental scientific discoveries and innovative scientific ideas Analyzes structure and properties of variety of CS materials, including nanomaterials Authored by world-recognized specialists in the field of combustion synthesis for advanced materials, Combustion for Material Synthesis presents the state of the art in R&D in the field of CS, focusing on the fabrication of novel materials. It is intended for researchers, engineers, and graduate students from different disciplines and is also suggested as recommended reading for materials science courses.
This unique compendium presents a comprehensive and self-contained theory of material development under imperfect information and its applications. The book describes new approaches to synthesis and selection of materials with desirable characteristics. Such approaches provide the ability of systematic and computationally effective analysis in order to predict composition, structure and related properties of new materials.The volume will be a useful advanced textbook for graduate students. It is also suitable for academicians and practitioners who wish to have fundamental models in new material synthesis and selection.
Materials syntheses are more complex than syntheses of inorganic or organic compounds. Materials synthesis protocols often suffer from unclarities, irreproducibility, lack in detail and lack in standards. The need to change this situation is the main motivation for this book. It collects a number of detailed protocols, ranging from organic polymers to carbonaceous and ceramic materials, from gels to porous and layered materials and from powders and nanoparticles to films.
This up-to-date, single-source reference on the preparation of single-phase inorganic materials covers the most important methods and techniques in solid-state synthesis and materials fabrication. Presenting both fundamental background and advanced methodologies, it describes the principles of crystallography, thermodynamics, and kinetics required, addresses crystallographic and microstructural considerations, and describes various kinds of reactions. This is an excellent text for materials science and engineering, chemistry, and physics students, as well as a practical, hands-on reference for working professionals.
Pioneered by the pharmaceutical industry and adapted for the purposes of materials science and engineering, the combinatorial method is now widely considered a watershed in the accelerated discovery, development, and optimization of new materials. Combinatorial Materials Synthesis reveals the gears behind combinatorial materials chemistry and thin-film technology, and discusses the prime techniques involved in synthesis and property determination for experimentation with a variety of materials. Funneling historic innovations into one source, the book explores core approaches to synthesis and rapid characterization techniques for work with combinatorial materials libraries.
Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders in the areas of radiation synthesis of materials and radiation damage, providing thorough and expert information for a wide range of readers, including advanced students, researchers, industrial practitioners, and university educators.
Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Materials is a collection of papers that reflects modern trends in self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis (SHS), a process for synthesis of modern materials carried out in the mode of autowave solid-flame combustion. To date, SHS-produced materials have found their application in different branches of modern science and technology, mechanical engineering, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, aerospace engineering, chemical industry, electrical engineering, and electronics. This book is useful not only for the SHS community, but also for researchers and engineers who are active in the following related fields of knowledge; theory and practice of combustion, materials science and technology, pure and applied chemistry, and metallurgy.
Combustion Synthesis covers a wide range of technologies to produce advanced materials, ranging from oxides, nitrides and intermetallics to various nanostructured compounds, such as nanopowders and carbon nano tubes (CNT). This Ebook, with contributions from leading experts in industry and academia, provides an up-to-date overview about combustion synthesis. a comparison to conventional methods as well as a description of analytical techniques is given, alongside the description of special techniques, such as microwave or electrical field assistance. Aspects such as historic development and scale-up make this book a concise, yet comprehensive review about combustion synthesis. This book should be useful for scientists, engineers and practitioners working in materials science and related fields.
This book provides a comprehensive collection of the latest information on nanomaterials and nanocomposites. It covers material synthesis, processing, structure characterization, properties and applications. It presents a coherent treatment of how composite properties depend on nanostructure, and covers cutting-edge topics like bionanocomposites for sustainable development. This book summarizes many developments in the field making it an ideal resource for researchers from industry, academia, government and private research institutions.
Zeolite synthesis is an active field of research. As long as this continues, new phases will be discovered and new techniques for preparing existing phases will appear. This edition of Verified Synthesis of Zeolitic Materials contains all the recipes from the first edition plus 24 new recipes. Five new introductory articles have been included plus those from the first edition, some of which have been substantially revised. The XRD patterns have been recorded using different instrument settings from those in the first edition and are intended to conform to typical X-ray diffraction practice. In most cases, only the XRD pattern for the productas synthesised is printed here. The exceptions are those phases which show marked changes in the XRD pattern upon calcination.
Nanostructured materials have been largely studied in the last few years. They have great potential of applications in different fields such as materials science, physics, chemistry, biology, mechanic and medicine. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials is a subject of great interest involving science, market, politicians, government and society. Based on results obtained by the authors' research group during the past decade, this book comes to present novel techniques to synthesize nanostructured materials and characterize their properties such as crystallinity and crystallite size, specific surface area, particle size, morphology and catalytic activity. This book is aimed for students, researchers and engineers searching for methodologies to obtain and characterize nanostructures in details.
Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to mineralogy are made throughout the book since knowledge of naturally occurring inorganic substances is helpful in devising many of the syntheses and in characterizing the product materials. A set of questions at the end of each chapter helps to connect theory with practice, and an accompanying solutions manual is available to instructors. This book is also of appeal to postgraduate students, post-doctoral researchers and those working in industry requiring knowledge of solid-state synthesis.
Advances in nanotechnology offer great new promise in new multifunctional systems that experts predict to be a major economic force within the next decade. Ceramic materials enable new developments in such areas as electronics and displays, portable power systems and personnel protection. This issue will present the results of current basic and applied research and potential commercial applications. This book is comprised of papers from the Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 22-27, 2006, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Organized and sponsored by The American Ceramic Society and The American Ceramic Society's Engineering Ceramics Division in conjunction with the Nuclear and Environmental Technology Division.
This is the first book to describe the synthesis and characterization of the materials used in polymer-supported synthesis. The authors cover not only the classical polymers and their use in homogeneous, heterogeneous and micellar catalysis, but also such new developments as "enzyme-labile linkers", illustrating how to simplify the purification process and avoid waste. The result is a wealth of useful information -- for beginners and experts alike - in one handy reference, removing the need for difficult and time-consuming research among the literature.