This thorough revision of the classic Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals brings this authoritative book right up-to-date. Articles describe every species in detail, based on the very latest taxonomy, and a host of biological, ecological and sociological aspects relating to marine mammals. The latest information on the biology, ecology, anatomy, behavior and interactions with man is provided by a cast of expert authors – all presented in such detail and clarity to support both marine mammal specialists and the serious naturalist. Fully referenced throughout and with a fresh selection of the best color photographs available, the long-awaited second edition remains at the forefront as the go-to reference on marine mammals. More than 20% NEW MATERIAL includes articles on Climate Change, Pacific White-sided Dolphins, Sociobiology, Habitat Use, Feeding Morphology and more Over 260 articles on the individual species with topics ranging from anatomy and behavior, to conservation, exploitation and the impact of global climate change on marine mammals New color illustrations show every species and document topical articles FROM THE FIRST EDITION “This book is so good...a bargain, full of riches...packed with fascinating up to date information. I recommend it unreservedly it to individuals, students, and researchers, as well as libraries." --Richard M. Laws, MARINE MAMMALS SCIENCE "...establishes a solid and satisfying foundation for current study and future exploration" --Ronald J. Shusterman, SCIENCE
Hearings Before the Subcommittee of Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session, on Marine Mammal Oversight, February 17, 1977, Tuna-porpoise Regulations, March 2, 1977, Marine Mammal Authorization, H.R. 4740, March 15, 1977
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment
Setting the stage : rocks, fossils and evolution -- The oldest marine mammals : whales and sea cows -- Later diverging whales : Neoceti -- Aquatic carnivores : pinnipeds and a bear-like carnivoran -- Crown sirenians and their desmostylian relatives -- Aquatic sloths and recent occupants of the sea-sea otters and polar bears -- Diversity changes through time : the influence of climate change and humans
Sound has become a major tool for studying the ocean. Although the ocean is relatively opaque to light, it is relatively transparent to sound. Sound having frequencies below 1,000 Hertz (Hz) is often defined as low-frequency sound. The speed of sound is proportional to the temperature of the water through which it passes. Therefore, sound speed can be used to infer the average temperature of the water volume through which sound waves have passed. The relationship between water temperature and the speed of sound is the basis for the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) experiment. The ATOC experiment is designed to monitor the travel time of sound between sources off the coasts of Hawaii and California and several receivers around the Pacific Ocean in order to detect trends in ocean temperature and for other research and monitoring purposes. Some whales, seals, and fish use low-frequency sound to communicate and to sense their environments. For example, baleen whales and some toothed whales are known to use and respond to low-frequency sound emitted by other individuals of their species. Sharks are not known to produce low-frequency sound but are attracted to pulsed low-frequency sounds. Therefore, it is possible that human-generated low-frequency sound could interfere with the natural behavior of whales, sharks, and some other marine animals. Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound is an updated review of the National Research Council 1994 report Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs, based on data obtained from the MMRP and results of any other relevant research, including ONR's research program in low-frequency sound and marine mammals. This report compares new data with the research needs specified in the 1994 NRC report, focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of the data for answering important outstanding questions about marine mammal responses to low-frequency sound and identifies areas where gaps in our knowledge continue to exist.