Cartography and the Framing of America’s International Power
Author: Timothy Barney
Publisher: UNC Press Books
In this fascinating history of Cold War cartography, Timothy Barney considers maps as central to the articulation of ideological tensions between American national interests and international aspirations. Barney argues that the borders, scales, projections, and other conventions of maps prescribed and constrained the means by which foreign policy elites, popular audiences, and social activists navigated conflicts between North and South, East and West. Maps also influenced how identities were formed in a world both shrunk by advancing technologies and marked by expanding and shifting geopolitical alliances and fissures. Pointing to the necessity of how politics and values were "spatialized" in recent U.S. history, Barney argues that Cold War–era maps themselves had rhetorical lives that began with their conception and production and played out in their circulation within foreign policy circles and popular media. Reflecting on the ramifications of spatial power during the period, Mapping the Cold War ultimately demonstrates that even in the twenty-first century, American visions of the world--and the maps that account for them--are inescapably rooted in the anxieties of that earlier era.
The 329th Geodetic Detachment and the 64th Engineer Topographic Battalion 1956-1970
Author: The History Team
Merriam Press Military History MH1 First Edition (2014) This is a unit history of the 64th Topographic Engineer Battalion during the 1960s as it undertook its last mission before being deactivated at the beginning of the next decade. This may have been the last major traditional mapping mission undertaken by the U.S. Army and the Army Map Service in the 20th Century as advanced satellites became available and could do much of the work with more efficiency than the traditional survey battalion. Most of the work done was surveying to provide the data for the map makers back in the U.S. Before this could be done, the U.S. Air Force sent its special squadron to fly missions to create the aerial photograph needed to produce the maps and to aid the surveyors in their job. The soldier surveyors often moved into the field using old and inaccurate maps based on data from as far back as the time of the Italian occupation of Ethiopia. Initially the battalion took over operations that had begun in Libya and it was here that some of the troops encountered minefields left over from World War II. From Libya elements of the battalion were sent to work in Iran with the Iranian Army. A reinforced company was sent to begin operations in Ethiopia early in the 1960s while another detachment worked in Liberia. Field parties, often supported by aircraft, crossed deserts, mountains, and jungles operating in areas that included everything from deadly snakes to lions, and an array of diseases. In some cases the survey teams had to operate in active war zones. In one case, a team was briefly taken prisoner. Many times these troops were far from their bases and in an emergency help was anywhere from hours to days away. This history only presents a very basic description of the type of survey activities carried out by the battalion to provide a background. Most of the text is devoted to a history of the unit and the experiences of veterans of this battalion including civilian members of the Army Map Service. Photos, maps
This groundbreaking study maps out and analyzes the development ofa global intergovernmental (IGO) institutional architecture in thepost World War II era. Systematically traces similarities and differences between theinstitutional architecture of the Cold War and post-Cold Wareras Examines the range of reasons why states join IGOs, identifiespatterns of participation within these organizations, and examinesthe effects of membership on states Considers the impact of the EU on other regional organizationsand developments outside Europe Provides a strong contribution to the study of internationalorganization and IGO development combining both quantitative andqualitative methodologies
From 1950 to 1990, the Soviet Army conducted a global topographic mapping program, creating large-scale maps for much of the world that included a diversity of detail that would have supported a full range of military planning. For big cities like New York, DC, and London to towns like Pontiac, MI and Galveston, TX, the Soviets gathered enough information to create street-level maps. What they chose to include on these maps can seem obvious like locations of factories and ports, or more surprising, such as building heights, road widths, and bridge capacities. Some of the detail suggests early satellite technology, while other specifics, like detailed depictions of depths and channels around rivers and harbors, could only have been gained by actual Soviet feet on the ground. The Red Atlas includes over 350 extracts from these Cold War maps, exploring their provenance and cartographic techniques as well as what they can tell us about their makers and the Soviet initiatives that were going on all around us.
An examination of the geographical transitions underway following the collapse in 1991 of the Soviet Union and the 15 nation-states. The book argues that there are four processes central to this transition - decolonization, democratization, marketization and globalization.
In a quest to discover the truth behind the twentieth century's disastrous record of conflict and war, the author considers two contradictory approaches to history: the so-called cock-up theory and conspiracy theories. Could there be truth to the often-dismissed concept of conspiracy in history: the manipulation of external events by groups and individuals mostly hidden from the public eye? In the work of philosopher and scientist Rudolf Steiner, Boardman finds convincing evidence of the existence of secretive circles in the West, which have plans for humanitys long-term future. Steiner indicated that such "brotherhoods" had prepared for world war in the twentieth century, and had instructed their members, using redrawn maps as a guide, on how Europe was to be changed. If these brotherhoods existed in Steiner's time, could they still be active today? Based on detailed research, Boardman concludes that such groups are directing world politics in our time. As backing for his theory, he studies a series of important articles and maps--ranging from an 1890 edition of the satirical journal Truth to more recent pieces from influential publications that speak for themselves. He concludes that vast plans are in progress for a New World Order to control and direct individuals and nations, and he calls us to be vigilant, awake and informed.
This book analyses the way in which the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) defines the West after the end of the Cold War and the demise of its constitutive 'Other', the Soviet Union. The book offers a theoretical critique of liberal approaches to security, and focuses on NATO's construction of four geo-cultural spaces that are the sites of particular dangers or threats, which cause these spaces to be defined as the 'enemy' of the West. While this forges a collective Western identity, effectively achieved in the 1990s, the book also includes an analysis of NATO's involvement in the War on Terror - an involvement in which the Alliance fails to define a coherent West, thereby undermining the very source of its long-standing political cohesion. Contributing to theoretical development within Critical Security Studies, Behnke draws on a variety of approaches to provide an analytical framework that examines the political as well as philosophical problems associated with NATO's performance of security and identity, concluding that in the modern era of globalized, non-territorialized threats and dangers, NATO's traditional spatial understanding of security is no longer effective given the new dynamics of Western security. NATO's Security Discourse after the Cold War will be of great interest to students and researchers of International Relations, Critical Security Studies and International Organizations.
Due to globalization, cultural spaces are now developing with no tangible connection to geographical place. The territorial logic traditionally used to underpin architecture and envision our built environment is being radically altered, forcing the adoption of a new method of conceptualizing space/geography and what constitutes architectural practice. Construction techniques, design sensibilities, and cultural identities are being transformed as technology transports us to places that were previously unreachable. The resultant "globalized" architect must become more than just an artful visionary, but also a master of the art of the political nudge willing to act within multiple mediums and at the simultaneous scales of a chaotic new world disorder. Though fearless they must also be responsible, inherently understanding the necessity to align bold visions with the mundane details of the everyday in ways that are culturally flexible and accepting of change. The potential for what must be considered the legitimate practice of the architect must move from a purely material venue to one more directly engaged in the chaos of the larger economic, political, and social spheres of a globalizing world. The issues and possible interactions with globalization contained in this text exemplify ways that architecture is transforming into a more flexible and fluid interdisciplinary version of its traditional self in order to rise to challenges of this new international terrain. A theme runs throughout in the form of a call: that architects must conceptually re-construct their frames of reference to better align with the demands of a rapidly globalizing world.
Since the end of the Second World War the map of the Americas has changed dramatically. Not only were many former European colonies turned into sovereign states, there was also an ongoing process of region-making recognizable throughout the hemisphere and obvious through the establishment of several regional agreements. The emergence of political and economic regional integration blocs is a very timely topic analyzed by scholars in many disciplines worldwide. This book looks at remapping the recent trends in region-making throughout the Americas in a way that hasn’t been at the center of academic analyses so far. While examining these regionalisation tendencies with a historical background in mind, the authors also answer fundamental questions such as: What influences does globalization have on region-making, both on normative regionalism plans as well as on actual economic, political, cultural, military and social regionalization processes driven by state and non-state actors? What ideas or interests lead states in the Americas to cooperate or compete with one another and how is this power distributed? How do these regional agreements affect trade relations and have there been trade barriers set up to protect national economies? What agreements exist or have existed and how did they change with regard to contents and for what reason? The book informs academic as well as non-academic audiences about regional developments in the Americas, in particular those dating back to the last twenty years. Beyond the primary purpose of summarizing the hemisphere’s recent trends, the book also brings clarification in a detailed but easy to understand way about timely issues regarding the institutionalisation, or lack thereof, of the plethora of regional and sub-regional bodies that have emerged in this hemisphere over the past couple of decades.