Neil Duxbury examines how precedents constrain legal decision-makers and how legal decision-makers relax and avoid those constraints. There is no single principle or theory which explains the authority of precedent but rather a number of arguments which raise rebuttable presumptions in favour of precedent-following. This book examines the force and the limitations of these arguments and shows that although the principal requirement of the doctrine of precedent is that courts respect earlier judicial decisions on materially identical facts, the doctrine also requires courts to depart from such decisions when following them would perpetuate legal error or injustice. Not only do judicial precedents not 'bind' judges in the classical-positivist sense, but, were they to do so, they would be ill suited to common-law decision-making. Combining historical inquiry and philosophical analysis, this book will assist anyone seeking to understand how precedent operates as a common-law doctrine.
What is the justification for following precedents? Are judicial pronouncements on precedent rules, or just conventions? Contributors to this book address these and other intriguing questions vital to the understanding and interpretation of precedent and the workings of law.
This is the second edition of the highly successful book first published in 1989. However, it has been extensively revised in content and updated: Eight out of 14 chapters are new including chapters such as The Constitutional Framework of Powers, Alternative Dispute Resolution, and The Singapore Legal System and International Law; and the law on all subjects has been updated.
This eighth editions of Business Law includes updated material on the extensive changes on courts and court proceedings, particularly the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 and the Access to Justice Act 1999 and covers the changes in business associations including the Limited Liability Partnerships Act 2000. It contains a new unit on EU Law and revised examination questions at the end of each unit which should provide a basis for modular study. It covers the English legal system, important developments in contract and tort, including recent negligence cases and legislation such as the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 and the Competition Act 1998, sale of goods and new cases and materials on Employment law. It has tables, charts and case studies to aid learning and revision. It is suitable for AS/A Level and undergraduate HND/C Business and BA business studies students.
The Encyclopedia provides a detailed and comprehensive account of the subject known as public choice. However, the title would not convey suf- ciently the breadth of the Encyclopedia’s contents which can be summarized better as the fruitful interchange of economics, political science and moral philosophy on the basis of an image of man as a purposive and responsible actor who pursues his own objectives as efficiently as possible. This fruitful interchange between the fields outlined above existed during the late eighteenth century during the brief period of the Scottish Enlightenment when such great scholars as David Hume, Adam Ferguson and Adam Smith contributed to all these fields, and more. However, as intell- tual specialization gradually replaced broad-based scholarship from the m- nineteenth century onwards, it became increasingly rare to find a scholar making major contributions to more than one. Once Alfred Marshall defined economics in neoclassical terms, as a n- row positive discipline, the link between economics, political science and moral philosophy was all but severed and economists redefined their role into that of ‘the humble dentist’ providing technical economic information as inputs to improve the performance of impartial, benevolent and omniscient governments in their attempts to promote the public interest. This indeed was the dominant view within an economics profession that had become besotted by the economics of John Maynard Keynes and Paul Samuelson immediately following the end of the Second World War.
This book, which relies on primary and secondary printed sources and a series of interviews with affected persons, lawyers, judges, and customary court presidents in Nigeria, focuses on the place of due process in the Nigerian legal system. Uwakah is concerned about the abuse of this important fundamental right in his country. The purpose of the book is to examine how due process operates in Nigeria and whether the coexistence of the customary law, the English common law, the Moslem law, and the martial law systems in Nigeria hinders or enhances due process in the country. Finally, the study investigates the suitability of the British version of due process to Nigeria, since the concept is imported to the country. The book concludes that the British version of due process is unsuitable to Nigeria because the country's political, economic, social, and religious backgrounds substantially differ from those of Britain. This conclusion is premised on the consensus of the interviewees. Uwakah recommends the country's immediate transition from military to civilian rule.
Some Reflections from National and International Law
Author: Rainer Arnold
Judicial control of public power ensures a guarantee of the rule of law. This book addresses the scope and limits of judicial control at the national level, i.e. the control of public authorities, and at the supranational level, i.e. the control of States. It explores the risk of judicial review leading to judicial activism that can threaten the principle of the separation of powers or the legitimate exercise of state powers. It analyzes how national and supranational legal systems have embodied certain mechanisms, such as the principles of reasonableness, proportionality, deference and margin of appreciation, as well as the horizontal effects of human rights that help to determine how far a judge can go. Taking a theoretical and comparative view, the book first examines the conceptual bases of the various control systems and then studies the models, structural elements, and functions of the control instruments in selected countries and regions. It uses country and regional reports as the basis for the comparison of the convergences and divergences of the implementation of control in certain countries of Europe, Latin America, and Africa. The book’s theoretical reflections and comparative investigations provide answers to important questions, such as whether or not there are nascent universal principles concerning the control of public power, how strong the impact of particular legal traditions is, and to what extent international law concepts have had harmonizing and strengthening effects on internal public-power control.
Philip Hamburger’s Law and Judicial Duty traces the early history of what is today called "judicial review." The book sheds new light on a host of misunderstood problems, including intent, the status of foreign and international law, the cases and controversies requirement, and the authority of judicial precedent. The book is essential reading for anyone concerned about the proper role of the judiciary.