This book originated as lectures for a course on political philosophy that Rawls taught regularly at Harvard in the 1980s. In time the lectures became a restatement of his theory of justice as fairness, revised in light of his more recent papers and his treatise Political Liberalism (1993). As Rawls writes in the preface, the restatement presents "in one place an account of justice as fairness as I now see it, drawing on all [my previous] works." He offers a broad overview of his main lines of thought and also explores specific issues never before addressed in any of his writings. Rawls is well aware that since the publication of A Theory of Justice in 1971, American society has moved farther away from the idea of justice as fairness. Yet his ideas retain their power and relevance to debates in a pluralistic society about the meaning and theoretical viability of liberalism. This book demonstrates that moral clarity can be achieved even when a collective commitment to justice is uncertain.
Few aspects of American military history have been as vigorously debated as Harry Truman's decision to use atomic bombs against Japan. In this carefully crafted volume, Michael Kort describes the wartime circumstances and thinking that form the context for the decision to use these weapons, surveys the major debates related to that decision, and provides a comprehensive collection of key primary source documents that illuminate the behavior of the United States and Japan during the closing days of World War II. Kort opens with a summary of the debate over Hiroshima as it has evolved since 1945. He then provides a historical overview of thye events in question, beginning with the decision and program to build the atomic bomb. Detailing the sequence of events leading to Japan's surrender, he revisits the decisive battles of the Pacific War and the motivations of American and Japanese leaders. Finally, Kort examines ten key issues in the discussion of Hiroshima and guides readers to relevant primary source documents, scholarly books, and articles.
First Philosophy: Values and Society brings together classic and ground-breaking readings on ethics and social and political philosophy. Mindful of the intrinsic difficulty of much of the material, the editor has provided comprehensive introductions both to the central topics and to each individual selection. By providing a detailed discussion of the historical and intellectual background to each piece, he aims to enable readers to approach the material without unnecessary barriers to understanding. In an introductory chapter, the editor provides a brief introduction to the nature of philosophical enquiry, to the nature of argument, and to the process of reading and writing within the academic discipline of philosophy.
The late John Rawls was one of the most inspiring, provocative and influential political philosophers of the twentieth century. In this collection a panel of distinguished political philosophers critically explore the intellectual legacy of Rawls. The essays herein engage Rawls's political theorizing from his earliest published writings in the 1950s to his final publication in 2001, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement and explore a diversity of issues related to his arguments, such as the attractiveness of his methodology/methodologies, and the normative coherence and empirical validity of his claims. In turn, the effectiveness both of his arguments and those of various supporters and critics are evaluated from the perspective of a variety of analytical approaches, including cosmopolitanism, communitarianism, perfectionism, liberalism, and legal theory. This book is an edifying and engaging dialogue with ideas and arguments that have provided the theoretical framework for much of contemporary political philosophy, and a thoughtful assessment of their continuing significance and place within the pantheon of political philosophy.
Since the publication of John Rawls' A Theory of Justice (1971) - followed up by Political Liberalism (1993) and Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (2001) - discussions on social justice and redistributive liberalism have taken center stage in contemporary political theory. This book adds to an enormous body of literature. It does not question Rawlsian principles, but it does reject the liberal institutions he advocates. A debate is constructed in which his liberalism is contrasted with a libertarian socialism informed by the English theorist of guild socialism G.D.H. Cole (1889-1959). These two authors visualize alternative macro socio-economic schemes. Although they are set within modern liberal and libertarian socialist frameworks respectively, they share a commitment to reducing vast inequalities in wealth. Central to the Rawlsian scheme is the difference principle - that inequalities are only permitted if they benefit the least well off. Rawls proposes that citizens deliberating without awareness of subjective talents - a collective lack of knowledge captured by the Rawlsian term the veil of ignorance - will be compelled to prioritize a society structured to accommodate this principle to other systems in which inequalities are allowed to concentrate with lesser degrees of regulation. This assertion will not be challenged. However, it is shown how the difference principle will be more easily realized in the left libertarian scheme, in which the author defends. The argument is that Rawlsian premises point to a more radical conclusion than Rawls acknowledges.
The world is currently plagued by polarization, hyper-partisanship, authoritarianism, Majoritarian Democracy, Identity Politics, zero-sum politics and economics, inequality, racism, sexism, populism, Nativism, and dystopian societies. There is a desperate cry for solutions to these problems. This book is dedicated to solving these problems. This book identifies the extent of the problems as they are manifested in America. Then, this book takes the novel approach of operationalizing Justice as Fairness as the foundation of it uses the myriad works of John Rawls to devise solutions to these problems. Specifically, it uses Rawls’ “Justice as Fairness” as the foundation of a revolutionary set of solutions to these global problems.) This book is at once observational, diagnostic, prophylactic, and prognostic in its focus. This book takes an observational, diagnostic, and prophylactic approach to solve the problems above. According to Rawls, “Justice as Fairness” is an exercise in “ideal (metaphysical) theory.” This book goes beyond the metaphysical, by rendering Justice as Fairness into the realm of “nonideal (real world) theory.” It does this by first deciphering and explaining Justice as Fairness’ challenging concepts using ideas borrowed from many disciplines. The book then moves on to develop a Justice as Fairness Logic Model which identifies the structures, mechanics, and dynamics of Justice as Fairness. Then, this book operationalizes Justice as Fairness through the creation of a revolutionary management system, “Equity Management,” and a companion license-fee-free web-based software system, “Plato.” Equity Management-Plato was developed using Justice as Fairness, Systems Theory, program evaluation techniques, the judicial principle “strict scrutiny,” and Environmental Scanning and Forecasting. Finally, this book outlines how Equity Management-Plato can be used to manage six public sector environments ultimately creating a level playing field and just, fair, and inclusive circumstances for all Americans. The historical, political, social, and economic contexts of this book derive from the American experience. However, the problems and solutions identified in this book are universal. Therefore, the prognosis for countries adopting Equity Management-Plato is the development of new social contracts the adoption of Representative Consensus Democracy; justice, fairness, inclusion, reconciliation, and the realization of E Pluribus Unum. If affirmatively adopted and implemented, the solutions proposed in this book will result in the creation of Rawls’ “realistic utopias,” the saving of liberal democracy worldwide, and ultimately the creation of a “better world.” Author_Bio: Charles A. Washington is currently the President of Washington & Associates, Inc. which specializes in software design, development, and related consulting. Previously, he was President of Washington & Rice, LLC that was responsible for developing and disseminating contract compliance software named “Champ” and “Champ-Web” which was sold into four states. He spent eight years working for government agencies as a Grants Manager and as a Contract Compliance Manager. He received a BA degree (double major in Political Science and Black Studies), a MA degree, and a Ph.D., all from Indiana University-Bloomington. He taught at Cleveland State University, Jackson State University, Cuyahoga County Community College, and Lakeland Community College. He is married and has two children. He currently lives in Ohio. Keywords: John Rawls, Justice As Fairness, Social Contract, Equity Management-Plato, Representative Consensus Democracy; Justice, Fairness, Inclusion, Positive-Sum Politics And Economics, Reconciliation
This book examines the conception of the person at work in John Rawls’s writings from Theory of Justice to Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. The book aims to show that objections to Rawls’s political conception of the person fail and that a Rawlsian conception of political identity is defensible. The book shows that the debate between liberals and communitarians is relevant to the current debate regarding perfectionism and neutrality in politics, and clarifies the debate between Rawls and communitarians in a way that will promote fruitful discussion on the issue of political identity. It does this by providing a clearer account of a conception of personal identity according to which persons are socially constituted, including the intuitions and assumptions underlying the communitarians’ conception of persons as “socially constituted.” It examines the communitarian objections to liberal political theory and to the liberal conception of persons, the “unencumbered self.” The book differentiates between two types of objection to the liberal conception of persons: the metaphysical and normative. It explains Rawls's political conception of persons, and the metaphysical and normative commitments Rawls incurs—and does not incur—in virtue of that conception. It shows that both kind of objection to Rawls's political conception of the person fail. Finally, modifying Rawls’s political conception of the person, a Rawlsian conception of political identity is explained and defended.
Introducing the concept of justice in contemporary political theory, this title outlines all the main theories and details the theories advanced by major thinkers such as Rawls, Sen, Friedman, Nozick and Fraser. It connects philosophical theories to real world issues and discusses the slogan 'the personal is political'
"Schaefer challenges John Rawls's practically sacrosanct status among scholars of political theory, law, and ethics by demonstrating how Rawls's teachings deviate from the core tradition of American constitutional liberalism toward libertarianism"--Provided by publisher.
Privatization is occurring throughout the public justice system, including courts, tribunals, and state-sanctioned private dispute resolution regimes. Driven by a widespread ethos of efficiency-based civil justice reform, privatization claims to decrease costs, increase speed, and improve access to the tools of justice. But it may also lead to procedural unfairness, power imbalances, and the breakdown of our systems of democratic governance. Civil Justice, Privatization, and Democracy demonstrates the urgent need to publicize, politicize, debate, and ultimately temper these moves towards privatized justice. Written by Trevor C.W. Farrow, a former litigation lawyer and current Chair of the Canadian Forum on Civil Justice, Civil Justice, Privatization, and Democracy does more than just bear witness to the privatization initiatives that define how we think about and resolve almost all non-criminal disputes. It articulates the costs and benefits of these privatizing initiatives, particularly their potential negative impacts on the way we regulate ourselves in modern democracies, and it makes recommendations for future civil justice practice and reform.