English summary: This collection of essays focuses on the rabbinic understanding of the Torah as well as issues concerning the canon and hermeneutics. It contains articles on the rabbinic interpretation of biblical texts, including the Books of the Maccabees and the Book of Judith as well as studies of the portrayal of biblical themes in the synagogues. Several texts deal with the currents in Palestinian Judaism at the end of the period of the Second Temple, the question of a possible unity in mainstream Judaism and the origins of Christianity. Three of the essays describe the rabbinic concept of the priesthood and of the heavenly liturgy after the destruction of the Second Temple. The last part deals with the similarities and the differences in the Jewish and the Christian interpretation of the Bible, the polemics resulting from the rivalry surrounding the Bible text as well as the question of what Jewish and New Testament scholars can learn from one another. German description: Die Aufsatze dieses Bandes entstanden in den letzten zwanzig Jahren. Im Mittelpunkt steht das rabbinische Verstandnis der Tora und ihre Stellung im judischen Leben, die Frage nach dem Kanon und der rabbinischen Hermeneutik. Konkretisiert wird die Thematik in Aufsatzen zur rabbinischen Auslegung einzelner biblischer Texte oder Bucher einschliesslich der Makkabaerbucher und des Buches Judit, aber auch in Studien zur Darstellung biblischer Themen in den Synagogen der Zeit. Mehrere Aufsatze befassen sich mit den Stromungen im palastinischen Judentum der Spatzeit des Zweiten Tempels, der Frage nach einer moglichen Einheit in einem Mainstream Judaism und der Entstehung des Christentums aus diesem gemeinsamen Boden. Wieweit die Zeit des Zweiten Tempels im rabbinischen Judentum nachwirkt, wird in verschiedenen Aufsatzen angesprochen. Drei Aufsatze befassen sich mit den Vorstellungen vom Priestertum und von der himmlischen Liturgie in der Zeit nach dem Untergang des Tempels. Die letzte Gruppe von Aufsatzen ist dem Gemeinsamen und den Unterschieden in judischer und christlicher Auslegung der Bibel gewidmet, auch der Polemik, die sich aus der Rivalitat um den gemeinsamen Text ergibt. Was Judaistik und neutestamentliche Forschung voneinander lernen konnen, ist Thema des abschliessenden Aufsatzes.Alle Beitrage wurden soweit moglich formal vereinheitlicht, Uberschneidungen getilgt, im Einzelfall auch zwei ursprunglich selbstandige Aufsatze ineinander verschmolzen. Ursprunglich auf Franzosisch oder Italienisch erschienene Aufsatze wurden ubersetzt und alle Arbeiten zumindest in einem gewissen Umfang auf den heutigen Stand gebracht.
Festschrift for Günter Stemberger on the Occasion of his 75th Birthday
Author: Constanza Cordoni
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
This Festschrift honours Günter Stemberger on the occasion of his 75th birthday on 7 December 2015 and contains 41 articles from colleagues and students. The studies focus on a variety of subjects pertaining to the history, religion and culture of Judaism – and, to a lesser extent, of Christianity – from late antiquity and the Middle Ages to the modern era.
The study of ancient Judaism has enjoyed a steep rise in interest and publications in recent decades, although the focus has often been on the ideas and beliefs represented in ancient Jewish texts rather than on the daily lives and the material culture of Jews/Judaeans and their communities. The nascent institution of the synagogue formed an increasingly important venue for communal gathering and daily or weekly practice. This collection of essays brings together a broad spectrum of new archaeological and textual data with various emergent theories and interpretative methods in order to address the need to understand the place of the synagogue in the daily and weekly procedures, community frameworks, and theological structures in which Judaeans, Galileans, and Jewish people in the Diaspora lived and gathered. The interdisciplinary studies will be of great significance for anyone studying ancient Jewish belief, practice, and community formation.
Stepped Pools, Stone Vessels, and Ritual Purity Among the Jews of Roman Galilee
Author: Stuart S. Miller
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Stuart Miller examines the hermeneutical challenges posed by the material and literary evidence pertaining to ritual purity practices in Graeco-Roman Palestine and, especially, the Galilee. He contends that “stepped pools,” which we now know were in use well beyond the Destruction of the Temple, and, as indicated by the large collection on the western acropolis of Sepphoris and elsewhere, into the Middle and Late Roman/Byzantine eras,must be understood in light of biblical and popular perspectives on ritual purity. The interpretation of the finds is too frequently forced to conform to rabbinic prescriptions, which oftentimes were the result of the sages’ unique and creative, nominalist approach to ritual purity. Special attention is given to the role ritual purity continued to play in the lives of ordinary Jews despite (or because of) the loss of the Temple. Miller argues against the prevailing tendency to type material finds—and Jewish society––according to known groups (pre-70 C.E.: Pharisaic, Sadducaic, Essenic; post 70 C.E.: rabbinic, priestly, etc.). He further counters the perception that ritual purity practices were largely the interest of priests and argues against the recent suggestion that the kohanim resurfaced as an influential group in Late Antiquity. Building upon his earlier work on “sages and commoners,” Miller claims that the rabbis emerged out of a context in which a biblically derived “complex common Judaism” thrived. Stepped pools, stone vessels, and other material finds are realia belonging to this “complex common Judaism.” A careful reading of the rabbis indicates that they were acutely aware of the extent to which ritual purity rites pertaining to home and family life had “spread,” which undoubtedly contributed to their intense interest in regulating them.
The Quests for the Historical Jesus resulted in a move “back to the Jewish roots!” Jewish Jesus research positioned Jewry within a dominantly Christian culture and permitted Jews to feel more at ease with Jesus the Jew. Christians are challenged to respond now with a new Christology.
The Bible is full of ancient texts long predating the assembly of Judaism's and Christianity's sacred books. Why these texts, and how were they transformed on the journey from folk tale to holy writ? Konrad Schmid and Jens Schröter unearth the history, in the process overturning assumptions about the relationship between the Old and New Testaments.
In Jewish Education from Antiquity to the Middle Ages there are fifteen tightly themed specialist studies that discuss individual texts, wider literary corpora, and various related themes to set a new agenda for the study of Jewish education
Based on an interdisciplinary conference held in Münster, this volume discusses the interrelation between political change and Jewish identity in the three centuries between the Maccabean and the Bar Kokhba revolt (168 BCE – 135 CE).
Festschrift for Wout van Bekkum on the Occasion of His Sixty-fifth Birthday
Author: Joachim Yeshaya
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Category: Literary Criticism
A collection of seventeen essays on pre-modern Hebrew poetry in honor of Wout van Bekkum. The articles in this volume all seek to examine how the religious, cultural, and social context in which the poet functioned impacted on and is visible, either explicitly or more elliptically, in their poetical oeuvre. For this purposes a broad understanding of "world" has been accepted, including both the natural world and the constructed one (society, culture, language) as well as the spiritual and emotional world. History, a pillar of the man-made constructed world, has been used to determine the boundaries: from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages, and—in instances where the topic connects to older traditions—to Early Modern Judaism, i.e. pre-modern Hebrew (and Aramaic) poetry. The articles in this volume, in the breadth of their temporal and spatial range and their multiplicity of approaches and methodologies, highlight the richness of contemporary scholarship on Hebrew poetry. The volume invites the reader to engage with this astonishing body of poetry, while providing a glimpse into the world of the payṭanim, and the cultures and societies from which they drew their ininspiration and to which they made such important contributions.
Comparative Essays Part I. Two Authors at the Beginnings of Christianity
Author: Oda Wischmeyer
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
The hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was heavily influenced by Pauline theology and/or epistles was widespread in the nineteenth century, but fell out of favour for much of the twentieth century. In the last twenty years or so, however, this view has begun to attract renewed support, especially in English language scholarship. This major and important collection of essays by an international team of scholars seeks to move the discussion forward in a number of significant ways– tracing the history of the hypothesis from the nineteenth century to the modern day, searching for historical connections between these two early Christians, analysing and comparing the theology and christology of the Pauline epistles and the Gospel of Mark, and assessing their reception in later Christian texts. This major volume will be welcomed by those who are interested in the possible influence of the apostle to the Gentiles on the earliest Gospel.
Most studies of Jews in medieval England begin with the year 1066, when Jews first arrived on English soil. Yet the absence of Jews in England before the conquest did not prevent early English authors from writing obsessively about them. Using material from the writings of the Church Fathers, contemporary continental sources, widespread cultural stereotypes, and their own imaginations, their depictions of Jews reflected their own politico-theological experiences. The thirteen essays in Imagining the Jew in Anglo-Saxon Literature and Culture examine visual and textual representations of Jews, the translation and interpretation of Scripture, the use of Hebrew words and etymologies, and the treatment of Jewish spaces and landmarks. By studying the “imaginary Jews” of Anglo-Saxon England, they offer new perspectives on the treatment of race, religion, and ethnicity in pre- and post-conquest literature and culture.
Exposed to multiple languages as a result of annexation, migration, pilgrimage and its position on key trade routes, the Roman Palestine of Late Antiquity was a border area where Aramaic, Greek, Hebrew and Arabic dialects were all in common use. This study analyses the way scriptural translation was perceived and practised by the rabbinic movement in this multilingual world. Drawing on a wide range of classical rabbinic sources, including unused manuscript materials, Willem F. Smelik traces developments in rabbinic thought and argues that foreign languages were deemed highly valuable for the lexical and semantic light they shed on the meanings of lexemes in the holy tongue. Key themes, such as the reception of translations of the Hebrew Scriptures, multilingualism in society, and rabbinic rules for translation, are discussed at length. This book will be invaluable for students of ancient Judaism, rabbinic studies, Old Testament studies, early Christianity and translation studies.
Proceedings of the International Conference Held at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 24–26 October 2017
The essays in Sacred Texts and Disparate Interpretations shed new light on core themes in Qumran studies, such as the textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible, history of the Qumran community, Hebrew philology and paleography, Wisdom and religious poetry.
This book aims to open up the discussion and research of the up to now unstudied period of the History of the Hebrew Bible text: the period from the apparent stabilization of the Hebrew biblical text until the standardization that is reflected in the manuscripts of biblical text, those including the Masorah (c. 2nd – 9th centuries A.D.). What took place from the time of the standardization of the consonantic text of the Hebrew Bible until the appearance of the first Masoretic codices? How was the biblical text preserved in the meantime? What was the body of notes that makes up the Masorah formed? How can the diversity of the textual traditions contained in the Masorah be explained and be consistent with the idea of a text established and standardized centuries before?
In Gelübde im antiken Judentum und frühesten Christentum Daniel Schumann examines discourses on ancient Jewish vows such as the dedicatory, the Nazirite, and the prohibitive vow as they are recorded in Jewish literature from the Second Temple period and from early Christian sources. In Gelübde im antiken Judentum und frühesten Christentum untersucht Daniel Schumann Diskurse zu Formen des antik-jüdischen Gelübdewesens, wie sie uns in jüdischer Literatur aus der Zeit des Zweiten Tempels und aus frühchristlichen Quellen überliefert sind.
The book is concerned with a so called ethical midrash, Seder Eliyahu (also known as Tanna debe Eliyahu), a post-talmudic work probably composed in the ninth century. It provides a survey of the research on this late midrash followed by five studies of different aspects related to what is designated as the work’s narratology. These include a discussion of the problem of the apparent pseudo-epigraphy of the work and of the multiple voices of the text; a description of the various narrative types which the work, itself as a whole of non-narrative character, makes use of; a detailed treatment of Seder Eliyahu’s parables and most characteristic first person narratives (an extremely unusual form of narrative discourse in rabbinic literature); as well as a final chapter dedicated to selected women stories in this late midrash. As it emerges from the survey in chapter 1 such a narratologically informed study of Seder Eliyahu represents a new approach in the research on a work that is clearly the product of a time of transition in Jewish literature.
die Zerstörung der Grabeskirche zu Jerusalem im Jahre 1009
Author: Thomas Pratsch
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
On September 28, 1009, Caliph al-Hakim had the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem destroyed. How did it come to this? What did it mean for contemporaries? Why were Jews persecuted as a result? Did it interrupt the stream of pilgrims to Jerusalem? What do we know about al-Hakim's personality? How was the crisis mastered? How was the church rebuilt? These are the questions considered in an interdisciplinary discourse by scholars of Arabic, Byzantine, Jewish, medieval and Nordic studies, as well as art historians and experts on the Christian East.
Essays on the Study of Parables in Christianity, Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism
Author: Marcel Poorthuis
In Parables in Changing Contexts, new venues in the comparative study of parables are addressed by scholars of Judaism, New Testament, Buddhism and Islam. Essays cover parables in the synoptic Gospels, Rabbinic midrash, and parabolic tales and fables in the Babylonian Talmud.