New Policies and Politics for the Twenty-First Century
Author: Andrew L. Oros
Publisher: Columbia University Press
For decades after World War II, Japan chose to focus on soft power and economic diplomacy alongside a close alliance with the United States, eschewing a potential leadership role in regional and global security. Since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the rise of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Japan's military capabilities have resurged. In this analysis of Japan's changing military policy, Andrew L. Oros shows how a gradual awakening to new security challenges has culminated in the multifaceted "security renaissance" of the past decade. Despite openness to new approaches, however, three historical legacies—contested memories of the Pacific War and Imperial Japan, postwar anti-militarist convictions, and an unequal relationship with the United States—play an outsized role. In Japan's Security Renaissance Oros argues that Japan's future security policies will continue to be shaped by these legacies, which Japanese leaders have struggled to address. He argues that claims of rising nationalism in Japan are overstated, but there has been a discernable shift favoring the conservative Abe and his Liberal Democratic Party. Bringing together Japanese domestic politics with the broader geopolitical landscape of East Asia and the world, Japan's Security Renaissance provides guidance on this century's emerging international dynamics.
This book assesses EU-Japan security relations, examining how they have developed in individual security sectors and how they could be affected by international developments. The conclusions of the Economic Partnership Agreement and the Strategic Partnership Agreement in 2017 demonstrate the steady growth in EU-Japan political relations. Since the 1990s, dialogues between the EU and Japan have benefitted from extensive trade and investment ties and shared liberal values. Based on collaborative research by European and Japanese scholars, this book provides an in-depth, systematic and comparative analysis of the extent to which the EU and Japan have achieved concrete actions in the pursuance of security cooperation across a range of key areas such as nuclear proliferation, regional security, international terrorism, and energy and climate security. Further, it seeks to explain why some security sectors (such as economic and cybersecurity) have resulted in more extensive EU-Japan cooperation, while others lag behind (such as military and regional security). Common declarations and actions of shared interest and concerns have often led to only modest levels of security collaboration, and the book highlights factors that may be seen as intervening between intention and action, such as the role of external actors, for instance China and the US, and the constraints of internal EU and domestic Japanese politics. This book will be of much interest to students of European security, Japanese politics, diplomacy studies and international relations.
Through a discourse analysis of Japanese parliamentary debates, this book explores how different understandings of Japan’s history have led to sharply divergent security policies in the postwar period, whilst providing an explanation for the much-debated security policy changes under Abe Shinzō. Analyzing the ways identities can be constructed through ‘temporal othering,’ as well as ‘spatial othering,’ this book examines the rise of a new form of identity in Japan since the end of the Cold War, one that is differentiated not from prewar and wartime Japan, but from postwar Japan. The champions of this identity, it argues, see the postwar past as a shameful period, characterized by self-imposed military restrictions, and thus the relentless chipping away of these limitations in recent years is indicative of how dominant this identity has become. Exploring how these military restrictions have shifted from being a symbol of pride to a symbol of shame, this book demonstrates the concrete ways in which the past can both enable and constrain policy. Temporal Identities and Security Policy in Postwar Japan will be invaluable to students and scholars of Japanese politics and foreign policy, as well as international relations more generally.
Modern Japan is not only responding to threats from North Korea and China but is also reevaluating its dependence on the United States, Sheila Smith shows. No longer convinced they can rely on Americans to defend their country, Tokyo's political leaders are now confronting the possibility that they may need to prepare the nation's military for war.
The Interplay of Security, Economics, and Identity
Author: Yul Sohn
Category: Political Science
This book brings together up-to-date research from prominent international scholars in a collaborative exploration of the Japan’s efforts to shape Asia’s rapidly shifting regional order. Pulled between an increasingly inward-looking America whose security support remains critical and a rising and more militarily assertive China with whom Japan retains deep economic interdependence, Japanese leaders are consistently maneuvering to ensure the country’s regional interests. Nuclear and missile threats from North Korea and historically problematic relations with South Korea further complicate Japanese endeavors. So too do the shifting winds of Japanese domestic politics, economics and identity. The authors weave these complex threads together to offer a nuanced portrait of both Japan and the region. Scholars, observers of politics, and policymakers will find this a timely and useful collection.
This is the first major English-language study to explore the broad and longstanding connections between Japan’s national security and the safety of its sea lanes. Tracing issues from pre-and post-1945 eras, the book explores how Japan’s concerns with sea lane protection have developed across such diverse fields as military strategy, diplomacy, trade policy, energy security, and law enforcement. Drawing upon case study material and primary research including interviews with officials and security analysts, the book presents a chronological analysis of Japan’s sea lane security. While Japan’s security policies have recently undergone relatively rapid change, a historical treatment of sea lane security issues reveals long-term continuity in security policymakers’ perceptions and responses regarding Japan's defence and foreign policy. Revealing a neglected but important aspect of Japan’s military and economic security, the book investigates why officials and analysts continue to portray the defence of Japan’s sea lanes as ‘a matter of life and death’.
The Unintended Life of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution
Author: Kenneth L. Port
Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution has engendered scholarship in Japanese and English as well as in other languages. It turns out that there are two versions of Article 9: the English version that purports to prevent Japan from rearming and insists on Japanese pacifism, and the Japanese version that is less absolute and imprecise. Japan has the fourth largest military in the world by dollars spent. This is called the “great contradiction.” For the first time, Professor Port resolves this recurrent debate by explaining that there are simply two versions of Article 9. Many parties, entities, and even individuals have joined this debate to give their interpretation, and there are at least two diametrically opposed interpretations. On the one hand, the long-time ruling Liberal Democratic Party interprets Article 9 very narrowly to say that Japan can do anything it wants as long as it is for the defense of the Japanese people. On the other hand, the Communist Party of Japan and many private people argue that Article 9 mandates complete Japanese pacifism and Japan should not possess a military for any purpose whatsoever. In Transcending Law, Professor Port points out that the only entity that has remained on the sidelines during this 60 year debate has been the Supreme Court of Japan, although it is the one body that has the authority to interpret the Constitution. Thoroughly and objectively, Port explains all viewpoints of this complicated topic. As Japan moves toward revising its Constitution, Port argues it is now time for the Supreme Court to be heard.
The purpose of this book is to examine the security-related aspects behind Japan's emerging internationalism. Japan has for some time been projecting a higher international profile, which the Diet's approval to allow Japanese armed forces to operate abroad is but one manifestation. The book's scope is not limited to military issues; it embraces a spectrum of security-related topics such as constitutional amendment, international re-alignment and cooperation, defence industrialisation, Japan-US relations and technology leakage, and Japan's role in the new international order.