Islam Is Basically A Scientific Religion. It Binds Followers To Master, The Contemporary Sciences And All The Disciplines Of Knowledge. Therefore, Naturally, The Muslims In All Ages In Early Centuries, In Particular- Have Contributed A Lot A Promotion And Development Of Science And Technology In Their Times.This Study Discusses Muslim Scientist S Great Contribution To Scientific Inventions And New Researches. It Covers The Progress Of Science Under Islam Over The Centuries And Examines The Future Prospects Also. And It Makes It A Worthwhile Work.
As a suggested clearly by the title, this book serves as a basic guide to those who want to know about Islam. It is also devised to meet the requirements of the syllabus of Islamiat (introduction to Islam) of Jamia Millia Islamia, and is also recommended for general reading.
This book, first published in 1977, discusses the Muslim contribution to mathematics during the golden age of Muslim learning from the seventh to the thirteenth century. It was during this period that Muslim culture exerted powerful economic, political and religious influence over a large part of the civilised world. The work of the Muslim scholars was by no means limited to religion, business and government. They researched and extended the theoretical and applied science of the Greeks and Romans of an earlier era in ways that preserved and strengthened man¿s knowledge in these important fields. Although the main object of this book is to trace the history of the Muslim contribution to mathematics during the European Dark Ages, some effort is made to explain the progress of mathematical thought and its effects upon present day culture. Certain Muslim mathematicians are mentioned because of the important nature of their ideas in the evolution of mathematical thinking during this earlier era. Muslim mathematicians invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it ¿ addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, and extracting the square root and the cubic root. They also introduced the ¿zero¿ symbol to Western culture which simplified considerably the entire arithmetical system and its fundamental operations; it is no exaggeration if it is said that this specific invention marks the turning point in the development of mathematics into a science.
The House of Wisdom by Jim Al-Khalili published by Penguin Press (2011) talks in its preface of “an age in which great geniuses pushed their frontiers of knowledge forward to such an extent that their work shaped civilisations to this day.” Though perhaps “shaped civilisations to this day” is too enthusiastic a statement, this “pushing frontiers of knowledge” essentially belongs to the early Abbasid period of the Islamic glory. “I shall address,” says the author, “many questions that have long intrigued scholars of the history of science. How much science, for instance, did the Arabs actually know? How important were the contributions of Persian culture, Greek philosophy and Indian mathematics? How and why did the scientific scholarship flourish under the patronage of certain rulers? And, possibly most interestingly, why and when did this golden era come to an end?” But one thing is certain: through that golden age human activities in the promotion of human spirit received not only huge support and patronage but also positive applause. “It was this empire's multicultural and multi-faith tolerance that fostered a real sense of expectancy and optimism.”During this multicultural period no conflict appeared between reason and faith, between science and religion though there were brutal conflicts and battles between religions. The sky and the earth were locked in one happy and paired harmonizing union. However, the conflict between religious and scientific thinking and perception was an unfortunate insensitive development of the later days. By the proponents of science it was vehemently asserted that if there are many ways to go to heaven, there is only one as how heaven goes about. Such an abrasive dichotomy inside the Abrahamic religions is well-writ in the pages of tiring history. In the course of time religions became more and more political, became powerful tools of conquest.The basic fact that religion, after all, is to reach and hold the values of aspiring nobility in life's moods and movements, in its activities, started disappearing in the declining susceptibilities of the ages. It got appropriated by the antagonistic forces of the unregenerate vital nature. Unless it is constantly renewed in the greatness of its true spirit it becomes reactionary, becomes a lifeless burden dragging us back to the unresponsive past. There are now inter-religious and intra-religious conflicts, there are inter-disciplinary conflicts and battles, there are cruel ideological differences. In that respect the present-day science seems to be free from such ungainful issues, its approach having a certain degree of universality transcending all ideological, religious, national, racial factors; its empiricism is its solid armour of safety and defence.Yet can one say that there is no regional or temporal science although the methods of science could be free of contingent factors? The quality of say the British science was different than the quality of the French or the German science. One was practical or positivist, even commercial, the other intuitive, and yet another philosophical-metaphysical. It is also to be understood that no Muslim life is possible without the Holy Book. In that sense there could not only be the contributions of Islam to science but there could as well be the Islamic science itself. These are some of the aspects we propose to look into in the present brief work. The approach is more general and largely derives its inspiration from the Aurobindonian formulation of Indian thought and understanding. That furthermore expects a liberal development of perceptions in the bright and broad perspectives of changing and unchanging history.
Islam Is A Scientific And Progressive Religion, But Most People Do Not Know About It Authentically. Contrary To The Common Belief, Islamic Ideology Is Based On Reason And Logic. Muslims Have Contributed A Lot To The Growth Of Science And Technology But, It Remains A Lesser Known Fact. This Comprehensive And Exhaustive Study Is An Effort In The Direction Of Revealing The Veiled Facts And Unveiling The Truth. It Brings To Light Islam S Radical Approach To Science And Knowledge. This Book Is Bound To Prove To Be An Asset For Scholars, Student And General Readers, Alike.
In secular Europe the veracity of modern science is almost always taken for granted. Whether they think of the evolutionary proofs of Darwin or of spectacular investigation into the boundaries of physics conducted by CERN's Large Hadron Collider, most people assume that scientific enquiry goes to the heart of fundamental truths about the universe. Yet elsewhere, science is under siege. In the USA, Christian fundamentalists contest whether evolution should be taught in schools at all. And in Muslim countries like Tunisia, Egypt, Pakistan and Malaysia, a mere 15 per cent of those recently surveyed believed Darwin's theory to be 'true' or 'probably true'. This thoughtful and passionately argued book contends absolutely to the contrary: not only that evolutionary theory does not contradict core Muslim beliefs, but that many scholars, from Islam's golden age to the present, adopted a worldview that accepted evolution as a given. Guessoum suggests that the Islamic world, just like the Christian, needs to take scientific questions - 'quantum questions' - with the utmost seriousness if it is to recover its true heritage and integrity. In its application of a specifically Muslim perspective to important topics like cosmology, divine action and evolution, the book makes a vital contribution to debate in the disputed field of 'science and religion'.
This book examines how the prominent Muslim scholar Said Nursi developed an integrative approach to faith and science known as "the other indicative" (mana-i harfi) and explores how his aim to reconcile two academic disciplines, often at odds with one another, could be useful in an educational context. The book opens by examining Nursi’s evolving thought with regards to secular ideology and modern science. It then utilizes the mana-i harfi approach to address a number of issues, including truth and certainty, the relationship between knowledge and worldview formation, and the meaning of beings and life. Finally, it offers a seven-dimensional knowledge approach to derive meaning and build good character through understanding scientific knowledge in the mana-i harfi perspective. This book offers a unique perspective on one of recent Islam’s most influential figures, and also offers suggestions for teaching religion and science in a more nuanced way. It is, therefore, a great resource for scholars of Islam, religion and science, Middle East studies, and educational studies.
When the question is asked what are Islam’s contributions to civilization, often the focus is on scientific development, to the ancient world this is by far the most misleading standard for advancement and development. While Islam was certainly the most advanced civilization of the ancient world it’s social and moral development is what set it apart from the rest of the world. Social and moral development in the ancient world had a far more significant impact on a society than scientific development, although still important in many ways, this is because ideology changes how the entire community behaved and lived their lives. Moral development drives social development because it defines the framework for how that society should live and spend it’s time and energy, scientific development historically was a result of both of these because the backdrop in the ancient world for a society that did not develop socially and morally was either living as hunter gatherers or a nomadic life, they either never advanced as a community or degraded after advancement as the moral fabric of that society disappeared, the pyramids could not be built until the Egyptian religion and society demanded it which then directed mans scientific and engineering efforts. As the world at large moved away from this Islam was instrumental in shaping the development of the entire world as it shared it's scientific discoveries from one end of the empire to the other, it was a trade empire whose borders stretched from west Africa and southern Europe to China, it’s scientific advancements which surpassed the rest of the world where a direct result of changing communities and societies around the world and encouraging them to study nature and the world, this global effort would later spread around the world from Europe to Asia to the Americas. By only the 9th century for example muslim scientist’s had discovered the world was round and in comparison to Europe, the masses embraced the notion and took it for granted, Ibn Hazm said its proof was “that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth”, meaning if you where to follow the sun to where you perceived it to be setting, you would always find it vertical (up in the sky) to that location even though from your original location it may appear to be setting, that notion dawned on Galileo 500 years later. This book looks at what it is in Islam that encouraged this change in so many communities and it discusses the spirituality that shaped so many lives. Some of these societies where among the most primitive people on earth but in a short period of time they would set up large empires spanning multiple continents, this processes was seen numerous times in Islam’s history in different regions of the earth by communities of different backgrounds. From the Arab Ummayids who first invaded Europe, to the African Mali Empire whose most famous ruler was the richest person in History, to the Turkish Ottomans who had one of the largest Empires on earth and one of the longest lasting family dynasties, all had simple beginnings but one thing in common that changed their societies in a short period of time, Islam.
An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'an (Koran)
Author: Ahmad Von Denffer
Publisher: Kube Publishing Ltd
This classic and popular introduction to the sciences developed to interpret and understand Islam's holy book is ideal for all serious students of the Koran. Precise, yet comprehensive, it covers the traditional disciplines, including the meaning and contexts of revelation, the history and transmission of the text, and exegesis, as well as more contemporary topics like the recording of the Koran, the history of Orientalist approaches, and a survey of translations. It ends with a guide for the correct recitation of, and etiquette toward, the Koran. Chapter 1: The Qur'an and Revelation Chapter 2: Transmission of the Qur'anic Revelation Chapter 3: The Qur'an in Manuscript and Print Chapter 4: Form, Language and Style Chapter 5: Understanding the Text Chapter 6: Interpreting the Text Chapter 7: Some Related Issues Chapter 8: Reading and Studying the Qur'an Ahmad Von Denffer was born in Germany in 1949. He studied Islamics and Social Anthropology at the Universty of Mainz, where he also attended additional courses in the Department of Missiology. His special interests include Christian-Muslim relations. He has made a number of contributions to scholarly journals and has several publications to his credit. He joined the Islamic Foundation as Research Fellow in 1978 and is presently working with the Islamic Centre, Munich.
Inside the Traditional World of Islamic Spirituality
Author: John Herlihy
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
Written by an American Muslim convert who has lived nearly 40 years among the Muslims, the author presents an insider's account of Islam's true place within the family of religions, what it means to be a Muslim living in the shadow of the modern world, and how to cultivate a life of spirituality through the way of Islam in today's anti-spiritual environment. Within its pages, history unfolds, mysteries are unveiled, and secrets are revealed that shed light on the great human story of spiritual awakening and fulfillment. "This rigorous and highly readable introduction to Islam goes a long way to remedy the lack of historical perspective and the narrowing of intellectual and spiritual scope contributing to the outer and inner crisis of the Muslim world, as well as the poor understanding of this religion in the West. Another significant merit of Herlihy's book is the way it sets out the universal principles of Islam, shared with other traditional faiths, and its emphasis on the moral and spiritual fruits of the religion. This work is an invaluable resource for Muslims and non-Muslims alike, providing as it does a solid grounding in the traditional spirit of Islam." Patrick Laude, professor at Georgetown University, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Qatar "Readers will find that this timely work by John Herlihy offers a sublime contribution to the field of Islamic Studies. Relevant for Muslims and non-Muslims alike, one of the book's major themes is that the Islamic tradition converges with the unanimous tradition residing at the heart of each of the world's religions. The book reminds us that the foundations of the modern and postmodern world were formulated in revolt from the sacred, which is an essential point to be recognized by anyone seeking to understand the crisis that consumes the contemporary epoch. This work provides ultimate answers to ultimate questions." Samuel Bendeck Sotillos, editor of Psychology and the Perennial Philosophy: Studies in Comparative Religion "Amidst widespread miscomprehensions of Islam generated by Western media, readers who wish to understand the true nature of this noble tradition and its related spirituality will find this volume a trustworthy and illuminating guide. As a Western convert, philosopher, and above all practitioner, John Herlihy is well placed to dispel the fog of misunderstanding which often surrounds the subject of Islam. This book will be warmly welcomed by all those wishing to understand the timeless message of Islam, by seekers looking for practical guidance, and by those concerned with fostering a more harmonious global community of religions." Harry Oldmeadow, author of Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy.
A Critical Reading of the Modernist-Apologetic School
Author: Uriya Shavit
The modernist-apologetic approach to the relation between revelation and science and politics has been a central part of Arab discourses on the future of Muslim societies for over a century. This approach introduced historical and theological narratives and interpretative mechanisms that contextualize reason and freedom in Islamic terms to argue that, unlike with Christianity, it is possible for Muslim societies to be technologically and politically advanced without forfeiting revelation as an all-encompassing, legally-binding guide. ‘Scientific and Political Freedom in Islam’ critically examines the coherence and consistency of modernist-apologetic scholars. This is done through a discussion of their general theorizing on reason and freedom, which is then followed by discussions of their commentaries on specific scientific and political issues in light of their general theorizing. Regarding the former, the focus is Darwin’s theory of evolution, while the universality of the "Biblical flood," the heliocentric model, the Big Bang model and Freudianism are also discussed. Regarding the latter, the focus is Islam’s desired structure of government and concept of participatory politics, while individual freedoms are also discussed. The book argues that the modernist-apologetic approach has great potential to be a force for liberalization, but also possesses inherent limitations that render its theory on the relation between revelation and freedom self-contradictory. Introducing a significant body of new information on the reasons for the failure of secularism and democracy and the attitudes towards Darwinism in the Arab world, this book is a valuable resource for students and scholars of Islamic Studies, comparative religion, democracy studies and evolution studies.
Publisher: International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)
Islam’s brilliant contributions to science, art, and culture, are a timeless and precious heritage, which should be historically preserved for future generations. The great achievements of Muslim scholars are rarely if at all acknowledged in formal education, and today their identity, origins and impact remain largely obscure. This collection of papers aims to give readers a brief introduction to the intellectual history of Muslims and the contributions that eminent Muslim scholars have made in certain specific fields of knowledge including basic and applied physical and biological sciences, medicine, legal and political theories and practices, economic and financial concepts, models, and institutions, etc. The preservation of civilization necessitates a better understanding, sharing, and recognition of our common human heritage. Given today’s widespread negative stereotyping and falsely generated misunderstanding of Islam and Muslims, the publication of these papers on “Muslim Contributions to World Civilization” is vital to help repair the wrong that is being perpetrated and restore the historical truth, which is being distorted.
Critics of Islam depict Islam in a manner which makes it an orthodox and a non scientific religion. But in fact, nothing else can be farther from the truth than this statement. Truly speaking, Islam is basically a scientific religion which judges things on the basis of science or logic only. Islam has patronised contemporary science in all times. Few people may know that in early medieval age, almost all the great scientists were Muslims, whose legacy was later transferred to Europe after renaissance and became the foundation for further research, discoveries and inventions. This study highlight the same proven facts. It brings Islam's relations with science in light afresh and motivates its readers to know more about Islam, if they desire to learn science. A must for all scholars and scientists alike, this book would prove to be an asset for all those who value such effort.