Islam in the Eyes of the West

Images and Realities in an Age of Terror

Author: Tareq Y. Ismael

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 447

From the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York to the Madrid and London bombings of 2004 and 2005, the presence of Muslim communities in the West has generated security issues and major political concern. The government, the media, and the general public have raised questions regarding potential links between Western Muslims, radical Islam and terrorism. This speculation has given rise to popular myths concerning the Islamic world and led to a host of illiberal measures such as illegal warranting, denial of Habeas Corpus, "black prisons" and extreme torture throughout the democratic world. This book challenges the authenticity of these myths and examines the ways in which they have been used to provide an ideological cover for the "war on terror" and the subsequent Iraq war. It argues that they are not only unfounded and hollow, but have also served a dangerous purpose, namely war-mongering and the empowering of the national-security state. It further considers the origin and transmission of these myths, focusing on media, government policy and popular discourse.

Islam Through Western Eyes

From the Crusades to the War on Terrorism

Author: Jonathan Lyons

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 470

Despite the West's growing involvement in Muslim societies, conflicts, and cultures, its inability to understand or analyze the Islamic world threatens any prospect for East–West rapprochement. Impelled by one thousand years of anti-Muslim ideas and images, the West has failed to engage in any meaningful or productive way with the world of Islam. Formulated in the medieval halls of the Roman Curia and courts of the European Crusaders and perfected in the newsrooms of Fox News and CNN, this anti-Islamic discourse determines what can and cannot be said about Muslims and their religion, trapping the West in a dangerous, dead-end politics that it cannot afford. In Islam Through Western Eyes, Jonathan Lyons unpacks Western habits of thinking and writing about Islam, conducting a careful analysis of the West's grand totalizing narrative across one thousand years of history. He observes the discourse’s corrosive effects on the social sciences, including sociology, politics, philosophy, theology, international relations, security studies, and human rights scholarship. He follows its influence on research, speeches, political strategy, and government policy, preventing the West from responding effectively to its most significant twenty-first-century challenges: the rise of Islamic power, the emergence of religious violence, and the growing tension between established social values and multicultural rights among Muslim immigrant populations. Through the intellectual "archaeology" of Michel Foucault, Lyons reveals the workings of this discourse and its underlying impact on our social, intellectual, and political lives. He then addresses issues of deep concern to Western readers—Islam and modernity, Islam and violence, and Islam and women—and proposes new ways of thinking about the Western relationship to the Islamic world.

Through Muslim Eyes

M. Rashid Rida and the West

Author: Emad Eldin Shahin

Publisher: International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 120

View: 569

When Western influences began to pervade the Muslim world over a century ago, intense and rapid changes occurred in almost every sphere of Muslim life. The encounter with the West profoundly influenced Arab and Muslim intellectuals and led them to compare their stagnant condition with that of the more dynamic West. Questions arose: What were the secrets behind the West’s ascendancy and the reasons for the East’s decline? How could the East be revived? Could it reconcile the prevailing values in the East with those of the West? In spite of its brevity, this book offers the reader a fascinating study of how one of the century’s most important Muslim thinkers dealt with the ideas and institutions of the West. While Rida’s intellectual odyssey ran from guarded admiration of the West to contempt for its hypocrisy and even to calls for open rebellion, what is important to note is that his foremost concern was with values and ideas, in the tradition of the hadith which states that wisdom is like the believer’s lost camel, it is his to mount regardless of where he may find it. Thus, while Rida could hardly have endorsed the colonial policies of a Bismarck, for example, he nonetheless admired the man’s thinking in regard to education. Through the efforts of Muhammad Rashid Rida an entire generation of Muslim intellectuals was brought face to face with the thought of several of the West’s most important writers and social philosophers. Finally, though the inhumanity of the battlefield may have convinced Rida that Western politics were about the cynical exercise of power, the humanity of the West’s thinkers remained the standard by which he judged the West in general.

The Turk and Islam in the Western Eye, 1450-1750

Visual Imagery Before Orientalism

Author: James G. Harper

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN:

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 325

View: 805

The first book in English to approach the topic in this way, this collection probes the place that the Ottoman Turks occupied in the early modern Western imaginaire, and the ways in which this occupation expressed itself in the visual arts. Individual essays examine specific images or groups of images, problematizing the 'truths' they present and analyzing the contexts that shape the presentation of Ottoman or Islamic subject matter in European art.

The World Comes Under Islam

Transformation of Civilizations

Author: Gaṅgādhara Nanda

Publisher: Kaveri Books

ISBN:

Category: Culture conflict

Page: 400

View: 419

This Book Convincingly Predicts That The World Consisting Of All Nations Will Face A Great Civil War, The Greatest Of Wars That Ever Had Been Fought In The History Of The Whole World. It Will Be More Dangerous, Horrendous And Extensive That The Last Two Wars. Termed As The Global Civil War To Take Place Within A D 2030, It Was Ceremonially And Unwittingly Initiated On 11Th September 2001 In The Usa By One Who Is Still Under Search. It Will Be An Intense Struggle Between People Or Groups Of People Of Two Or More Different Civilizations In Hundreds Of Different Places In Diverse Countries Until One Civilization Wins Over All Other Adversary Civilizations Leading To The Ethnic Cleansing Of The Weaker Groups Or Civilizations. By The Year 2030, The Ration Of Religious Population Of The Western Countries And The Usa Would Have Changed Considerably Giving Rise To A Militant, Strong, Islamic Population In The West. The Great Transformation Of Civilizations Will Take Place During The Interim Period. Terrorism According To Western Ideology Or Jehad According To Islamic Ideology Is Part And Parcel Of Islam. The Author Describes And Contributes A New Theory To The Science Of World Politics, The Theory Of The Transformation Of Civilizatons And Prophesies A Global Civil War. Contents Chapter 1: Islam And Jehad; Islam And Its Aspects, Some Fundamental Concepts Of Islam, Islamic Concept Of Nationalism, Islamic Concept Of War, Islamic Concept Of Peace, Some Peculiarities Of Islam And Characteristics Of A Muslim, Mohammed Bin Osama Bin Laden, A Knitting Personality Of Islamic Character; Jehad And Its Aspects, Jehad Misnomered, Jehad The Root Of Terrorism, Jehad An Inevitable Part Of Islam, Jehad An Instrument Of Civil War, Jehad A Proselytizing Weapon And The Ground Work Of Islamic Education System, Jehad A War Of Reprisal Against Non-Islamic States, Jehad An Islamic Mission For World Conquest; Islamic Paradise The Key Source Of Jehad; Islamic Renaissance And Its Consequences; First Phase Of Islamic Renaissance, Second Phase Of Islamic Renaissance; Polarization Of Iran Against Euro-America; Iran S Significance In Charity, Iran Encounters Usa; Islam And Euro-America In Their Reciprocal Perspectives; Islam In The Eyes Of The West, Euro-America In The Eyes Of Islam; Chapter 2: Euro-America Under Global Islamic Movement; Islam In The Usa And The Super Power Under Challenge; The Usa Under Jehad, Islam In The Usa, Why Islamization Of Usa ?, Islamic Plans And Programmes Fro The Usa, Warmth Of Islamic Brunt In The Usa, Islamic Terrorism Usa S Unbottled Genie; Diproportionate Growth Of Islamic Population In Euro-America-A Death Knell For Christians; Usa Leads To A Civil Was: An Internal Jehad; Usa Encounters A Global Civil War; Europe Under Jehad; Islamic Fervour In Europe, Anti-Christian Stance Of European Muslims In Europe, Ignorance Of Islamic Law Is No Excuse, Tsunami Of Inflation And Disproportionate Growth Of Islamic Population-A Death Knell For European Christians, Islamic Evangelization In Europe, European Nations In Islamic Cauldron; England: From Anglican Church To Dar-Ul-Islam Institute, An Islamic Homeland In England, Islamic Parliament, British Royal House And Islam, France, Some Islamic Groups Of France, The Council Of Islamic Thought, Advanced Institute For Islamic Studies, The Voice Of Islamic Association, National Federation Of French Muslims, French Association For Information On Islam, Rabital-Ul-Islami, Germany, Italy, Chechnya, Poland, Bosnia, Spain, Macedonia, Kosovo; Chapter 3: The Thundering Cloud Expands; Pakistan The Breeding Ground Terrorists, Pakistan The International Training Centre Of Terrorists, Inter Service Intelligence (Isi)-A Psychic System To Produce Human Weapons For A Global Islam Invasion, Pakistan The Non-Nato Ally Of The Usa And The Chief Exporter Of Terrorists To Create, Insurgency In The Usa; India The Largest Democratic Nation Under The Crunch Of Global Islamic Invasion; Government S Policy Of Appeasement To Muslim Minority, Spate Of Infiltration And Disproportionate Growth Of Islamic Population-A Death Knell For Hindus, Government Of India S Erroneous Policy Of Population Stabilization, Activities Of Global Islamic Movements In India Through The Isi Of Pakistan, Islamistan-Plan Of Isi To Create Another Islamic Homeland In India; Expansion Of Islamic Fundamentalism In Afro-Asian Countries; Palestine The Apple Of All Discords, Lebanon, Turkey, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Nepal, Russia, China, Algeria, South Africa, Somalia, Nigeria, Sudan, Egypt, Canada, Argentina, Sweden, Thailand, Bulgaria, Denmark, Saudi Arabia; Chapter 4: Transformation Of Civilizations; Transformation Of Civilizations The Greatest Apprehension Of This Millennium; Theory Of Transformation Of Civilizations, Bipolar Power Horn, Some Pre-Indications Of Transformation Of Civilizations, Development Of The Tendency Of Disputed Nationalism, Incessant Civil War In Affected Countries, Adversary Scenario In The International Relations, Spread Of Distorted Culture And Emergence Of A Distorted Society In A Nation, Some Significance Of Transformation Of Civilizations, Loss Of Ethnicity, Promulgation Of Three Major Factors In The Affected Society, Disparity In Balance Of Power, Obliteration Of Secularism, Transformation Of Social Values, Launch Of A Civil War; Means Of Transformatory Actions (Ethnic Cleansing); Ways And Means Of Transformation Of Civilizations, Throat Silitting, Roasting, Sawing, Cogging, Burning, Slaughtering, Lashing, Bifurcation, Sealing, Closed Door Killing, Down Thrusting, Blood Sucking, Head Drilling, Hacking And Earthling, Stabbing, Disemboweling, Killing By Torture, Mutilation Of Limbs, Unilateral Marriage Through Exogamy And Birth Proliferation Through Polygamy, Islamic Policy Of Grow And Get (Synonym Of British Policy Of Divide And Rule ), Demolition Of Holy Places, Kidnapping, Conversion, Rape And Impregnation, Infiltration And Migration, Alienated Nationalism, Explosion, Phases Of Ethnic Cleansing, First Phase, Second Phase, Third Phase, Shifting Of Ethnic Population, Sex-Driven Terror, Authorized Rape, Projected Porgram, Consequence Of Ethnic Cleansing, Repudiated And Wretched Life Of Inferiority, Shifting Of Possessions, Development Of Suicidal Tendency And Enhancement Of Suicide; Glimpses Of Transformation Of Civilisations; First Phase, Second Phase: Process Of Formation Of A State Within A State According To The Law Of Transformation Of Civilisations, Reign Of Terrorism With Its Reign Of Terror In Affected Kashmir, Instruments Of Global Islamic Movement To Synthasize Kashmir Into A Separate Country: Kashmir Liberation Movement, All Party Hurriat Conference, Laskar-E Toiba, Jais-E-Mohammed, Isi Of Pakistan, Kashmir On 2020 According To The Assessment Of Transformation Of Civilizations, Third Phase: Process Of Formation Of A State From A State According To The Theory Of Transformation Of Civilizations, Role Of Bangladesh As An Islamic Nation; Role Of Global Islamic Movement For The Transformation Of Civilizations, Constituents Of Global Islamic Movement, Organization Of Islamic Conference (Oic), Pilgrimage To Mecca, Jehad Aglobally Applicable Instrument In A New Trend, Islamic Ummah, Exhortations Of Mohammed Through Quran And Allah, Jiziya (A Tax Over Non-Muslims For Their Conditional Survival And Islamic Code Of Imposition On Christians And Jews, Code Of Imposition On Christians, Jews And Other Non-Muslims For Their Conditional Survival; Islamic Social Metamorphosis Of Affected Nations, Islamic Scenario In An Affected Nation, Lack Of Awareness Of Social Security, Lack Of Integrated Defence Force; Conclusion; An Ultimate Ultimatum, An Eye Opener?.

Following Muhammad

Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World

Author: Carl W. Ernst

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN:

Category: Religion

Page: 244

View: 589

The author departs from the Middle Eastern-focused orientation of many guides to Islam, focusing on the religion as a worldwide phenomenon that is practiced by twenty percent of the world's population, covering the various movements within the religion that affect the modern world. (Religion--Islam)

Occidentalism

The West in the Eyes of Its Enemies

Author: Ian Buruma

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 125

Twenty-five years ago, Edward Said's Orientalism spawned a generation of scholarship on the denigrating and dangerous mirage of "the East" in the Western colonial mind. But "the West" is the more dangerous mirage of our own time, Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit argue, and the idea of "the West" in the minds of its self-proclaimed enemies remains largely unexamined and woefully misunderstood. Occidentalism is their groundbreaking investigation of the demonizing fantasies and stereotypes about the Western world that fuel such hatred in the hearts of others. We generally understand "radical Islam" as a purely Islamic phenomenon, but Buruma and Margalit show that while the Islamic part of radical Islam certainly is, the radical part owes a primary debt of inheritance to the West. Whatever else they are, al Qaeda and its ilk are revolutionary anti-Western political movements, and Buruma and Margalit show us that the bogeyman of the West who stalks their thinking is the same one who has haunted the thoughts of many other revolutionary groups, going back to the early nineteenth century. In this genealogy of the components of the anti-Western worldview, the same oppositions appear again and again: the heroic revolutionary versus the timid, soft bourgeois; the rootless, deracinated cosmopolitan living in the Western city, cut off from the roots of a spiritually healthy society; the sterile Western mind, all reason and no soul; the machine society, controlled from the center by a cabal of insiders—often Jews—pulling the hidden levers of power versus an organically knit-together one, a society of "blood and soil." The anti-Western virus has found a ready host in the Islamic world for a number of legitimate reasons, they argue, but in no way does that make it an exclusively Islamic matter. A work of extraordinary range and erudition, Occidentalism will permanently enlarge our collective frame of vision

Understanding Islam and the West

Critical Skills for Students

Author: Nathan Lean

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 849

Introduces students to a new framework for understating the relationship between Islam and “the West”, with an accessible introduction, three comprehensive and easy-to-follow parts, definitions of key terms, chronology, discussion points, and further reading.

Western Civilization Through Muslim Eyes

Author: Sayyid Mujtaba Musavi Lari

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN:

Category: Religion

Page:

View: 197

This book is one of the many Islamic publications distributed by Ahlulbayt Organization throughout the world in different languages with the aim of conveying the message of Islam to the people of the world. Ahlulbayt Organization is a registered Organisation that operates and is sustained through collaborative efforts of volunteers in many countries around the world, and it welcomes your involvement and support. Its objectives are numerous, yet its main goal is to spread the truth about the Islamic faith in general and the Shi`a School of Thought in particular due to the latter being misrepresented, misunderstood and its tenets often assaulted by many ignorant folks, Muslims and non-Muslims. For a complete list of our published books please refer to our website or send us an email .

The Rise of Science in Islam and the West

From Shared Heritage to Parting of The Ways, 8th to 19th Centuries

Author: John W. Livingston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 498

View: 848

This is a study of science in Muslim society from its rise in the 8th century to the efforts of 19th-century Muslim thinkers and reformers to regain the lost ethos that had given birth to the rich scientific heritage of earlier Muslim civilization. The volume is organized in four parts; the rise of science in Muslim society in its historical setting of political and intellectual expansion; the Muslim creative achievement and original discoveries; proponents and opponents of science in a religiously oriented society; and finally the complex factors that account for the end of the 500-year Muslim renaissance. The book brings together and treats in depth, using primary and secondary sources in Arabic, Turkish and European languages, subjects that are lightly and uncritically brushed over in non-specialized literature, such as the question of what can be considered to be purely original scientific advancement in Muslim civilization over and above what was inherited from the Greco–Syriac and Indian traditions; what was the place of science in a religious society; and the question of the curious demise of the Muslim scientific renaissance after centuries of creativity. The book also interprets the history of the rise, achievement and decline of scientific study in light of the religious temper and of the political and socio-economic vicissitudes across Islamdom for over a millennium and integrates the Muslim legacy with the history of Latin/European accomplishments. It sets the stage for the next momentous transmission of science: from the West back to the Arabic-speaking world of Islam, from the last half of the 19th century to the early 21st century, the subject of a second volume.

Islam and the Blackamerican

Looking Toward the Third Resurrection

Author: Sherman A. Jackson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 292

Sherman Jackson offers a trenchant examination of the career of Islam among the blacks of America. Jackson notes that no one has offered a convincing explanation of why Islam spread among Blackamericans (a coinage he explains and defends) but not among white Americans or Hispanics. The assumption has been that there is an African connection. In fact, Jackson shows, none of the distinctive features of African Islam appear in the proto-Islamic, black nationalist movements of the early 20th century. Instead, he argues, Islam owes its momentum to the distinctively American phenomenon of "Black Religion," a God-centered holy protest against anti-black racism. Islam in Black America begins as part of a communal search for tools with which to combat racism and redefine American blackness. The 1965 repeal of the National Origins Quota System led to a massive influx of foreign Muslims, who soon greatly outnumbered the blacks whom they found here practicing an indigenous form of Islam. Immigrant Muslims would come to exercise a virtual monopoly over the definition of a properly constituted Islamic life in America. For these Muslims, the nemesis was not white supremacy, but "the West." In their eyes, the West was not a racial, but a religious and civilizational threat. American blacks soon learned that opposition to the West and opposition to white supremacy were not synonymous. Indeed, says Jackson, one cannot be anti-Western without also being on some level anti-Blackamerican. Like the Black Christians of an earlier era struggling to find their voice in the context of Western Christianity, Black Muslims now began to strive to find their black, American voice in the context of the super-tradition of historical Islam. Jackson argues that Muslim tradition itself contains the resources to reconcile blackness, American-ness, and adherence to Islam. It is essential, he contends, to preserve within Islam the legitimate aspects of Black Religion, in order to avoid what Stephen Carter calls the domestication of religion, whereby religion is rendered incapable of resisting the state and the dominant culture. At the same time, Jackson says, it is essential for Blackamerican Muslims to reject an exclusive focus on the public square and the secular goal of subverting white supremacy (and Arab/immigrant supremacy) and to develop a tradition of personal piety and spirituality attuned to distinctive Blackamerican needs and idiosyncrasies.

The Architectural Character of Islamic Institutions in the West

Author: Hafiz-Ur-Rehman Sherali

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 249

View: 846

This thesis stems from an awareness, reinforced by personal design experience, of a dilemma which exists about character, in terms of appropriateness of and the representation of Islam, in the Institutions built for Muslim immigrants in the West. While architects building in Islamic nations are fighting their own battles against modernism in architecture in order to maintain continuity within the context of their traditional and contemporary cities, architects building for Muslim communities overseas are searching for appropriate images for their Institutions in cultures which historically have been unaware of the true nature of Islamic civilizations in the world. This study attempts to understand the complexities involved in designing for such building programs, which include mediating between the clients' insistence on the re-creation of the architectural traditions which have been left behind, and the immediate urbanistic, symbolic, social and political forces of the contexts which weave and knit the buildings in their surroundings. Within the limited scope of this endeavor, emphasis is placed on consideration of the architectural character of these religious institutions. However, one cannot completely ignore other aspects of the histories of these buildings, which illustrate the process of their making. These buildings are often loaded with self-conscious and fully acknowledged historical references, taken from the so called generic tradition of 'Islamic Architecture', and are collaged to impress upon the believer or non-believer alike, with recognizable imagery and form, the religious and ideological associations of their functions. However, this method of orchestrating often leaves an unstable territory, within which a critical evaluation of them reveals the inherent contradictions. The theoretical discourse of the thesis will deal with, on one hand, a wide range of general issues, such as the image of Islam in the eyes of the West, the human need for continuity and the use of typology in architecture, and on other hand, the distillation of arguments on specific topics such as the iconography of Islamic architecture and the various interpretations put forward to explain its extensive use of geometry and ornament. The case studies of the Friday Mosques in London and Rome and the Jamatkhanas in London and Burnaby extend and demonstrate the above dialogue with the past and will form the basis of formulation of design principles which might be utilized in future building programs.

Destiny Disrupted

A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes

Author: Tamim Ansary

Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com

ISBN:

Category: Civilization, Islamic / History

Page: 748

View: 783

Discusses the history of the world from an Islamic perspective, explaining the evolution of the Muslim community while recounting the history of the Western world with respect to Islamic events and interpretations.

Islam, the West and the Challenges of Modernity

Author: Tariq Ramadan

Publisher: Kube Publishing Ltd

ISBN:

Category: Religion

Page: 372

View: 484

Tackles the issue of how should Muslims respond to challenges of modernity without betraying their identity

A Mosque in Munich

Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West

Author: Ian Johnson

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 318

View: 624

Traces the author's investigation into the origins of radical Islam's presence in the western world, describing the defection of ex-Soviet Muslims to Germany during World War II and their establishment of a Munich-based mosque with links to key leaders and intelligence agencies. By the Pulitzer-winning author of Wild Grass.

Muslim Active Citizenship in the West

Author: Mario Peucker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Religion

Page: 226

View: 188

Muslim Active Citizenship in the West investigates the emergence and nature of Muslims’ struggle for recognition as full members of society in Australia, Great Britain and Germany. What actions have been taken by Muslims to achieve equal civic standing? How do socio-political and socio-economic factors impact on these processes? And how do Muslims negotiate their place in a society that is often regarded as sceptical – if not hostile – towards Muslims’ desire to belong? This book sheds new light on Muslims’ path towards citizenship in Australia, Great Britain and Germany. Existing research and statistics on Muslims’ socio-economic status, community formation, claim-making and political responses, and the public portrayal of Islam are systematically examined. These insights are tested ‘through the eyes of Muslims’, based on in-depth interviews with Muslim community leaders and other experts in all three countries. The findings offer unique perspectives on Muslim resilience to be recognised as equal citizens of Islamic faith in very different socio-political national settings. Pursuing an interdisciplinary and comparative approach, this book examines the country-specific interplay of historical, institutional, political, and identity dimensions of Muslims’ active citizenship and will be invaluable for students and researchers with an interest in Sociology, Religious Studies and Political Science.

Contesting Islam, Constructing Race and Sexuality

The Inordinate Desire of the West

Author: Sunera Thobani

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 772

The current political standoffs of the 'War on Terror' illustrate that the interaction within and between the so-called Western and Middle Eastern civilizations is constantly in flux. A recurring theme however is how Islam and Muslims signify the 'Enemy' in the Western socio-cultural imagination and have become the 'Other' against which the West identifies itself. In a unique and insightful blend of critical race, feminist and post-colonial theory, Sunera Thobani examines how Islam is foundational to the formation of Western identity at critical points in its history, including the Crusades, the Reconquista and the colonial period. More specifically, she explores how masculinity and femininity are formed at such pivotal junctures and what role feminism has played in the wars against 'radical' Islam. Exposing these symbiotic relationships, Thobani explores how the return of 'religion' is reworking the racial, gender and sexual politics by which Western society defines itself, and more specifically, defines itself against Islam. Contesting Islam, Constructing Race and Sexuality unpacks conventional as well as unconventional orthodoxies to open up new spaces in how we think about sexual and racial identity in the West and the crucial role that Islam has had and continues to have in its development.