The history of Islamic Science has not received the recognition it deserves. Although reverence is accorded to the memory of such great figures of Islamic history as Ar-Razi (Rhazes), Jabir-ibn-Hayyan (Geber) and Omar Khyaam. The present treatise is an attempt to construct an outline of the progress of Islamic Science from the days of the prophet Muhammad to the end of fifteenth century. Spread in fifteen chapters the book traces the growth and development of Islamic Science during the hay days of Islamic glory. It throws succinct and incisive light on various aspects of Islamic Science, namely, mathematics, mechanics, astronomy, astrology, music, alchemy, chemistry, medicine and geography. In short the approach is objective, analysis systematic, treatment logical and the style lucid
Research from the last few decades has profoundly changed our understanding of the Islamic scientific tradition. We now know that it was richer and more profound and had more complex relations to other cultures than wehad previously thought. This book offers an overview of this newly energized field of historical investigation.
Contents:IntroductionIslam and Science:Renaissance of Sciences in Arab and Islamic LandsThe Gulf University and Science in the Arab-Islamic CommonwealthThe Future of Science in IslamIslam and ScienceScientific Thinking: Between the Secularisation and the Transcendent, An Islamic ViewpointLiberty of Scientific Belief in IslamNew Initiatives:Foundations for Sciences in IslamProposal for the Creation of an Arab-Islamic-Italian Consortium for a Laboratory for Solid State PhysicsScience and Muslim Countries:Highlights of Science for TurkeyTechnology and Pakistan's Attack on PovertyThe Failings of Arab SciencePersonal:Homage to Chaudhri Muhammad Zafrulla KhanA Man of Science:Reproduction from Musluman Ilim Onceleri Ansiklopedisi (Istanbul, Turkey)“Sanad” by King Hassan II of Morocco on the occasion of the Nomination of Muhammad Abdus Salam as an Associate Member of the Academy of the Kingdom of MoroccoThe Citation for the Award of the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science by the Yarmouk University (Irbid, Jordan)Speech by Muhammad Abdus Salam on the occassion of the Award of the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science by the Yarmouk University (Irbid, Jordan)Biodata Readership: General.
This volume brings together thematically arranged articles on the relationship between Islam and science and how it has been shaped over the last century. The articles represent a broad variety of approaches and perspectives as well as reflective and analytic views and include some of the most important voices in the Islam and science discourse. This collection, which includes a special section devoted to studies that explore various aspects of the relationship between the Qur'an and science, is a valuable resource for researchers interested in gaining a greater understanding of the broader relationship between religion and science.
The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450
Author: David C. Lindberg
This landmark book represents the first attempt in two decades to survey the science of the ancient world, the first attempt in four decades to write a comprehensive history of medieval science, and the first attempt ever to present a full, unified account of both ancient and medieval science in a single volume. In The Beginnings of Western Science, David C. Lindberg provides a rich chronicle of the development of scientific ideas, practices, and institutions from the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers to the late-medieval scholastics. Lindberg surveys all the most important themes in the history of ancient and medieval science, including developments in cosmology, astronomy, mechanics, optics, alchemy, natural history, and medicine. He synthesizes a wealth of information in superbly organized, clearly written chapters designed to serve students, scholars, and nonspecialists alike. In addition, Lindberg offers an illuminating account of the transmission of Greek science to medieval Islam and subsequently to medieval Europe. And throughout the book he pays close attention to the cultural and institutional contexts within which scientific knowledge was created and disseminated and to the ways in which the content and practice of science were influenced by interaction with philosophy and religion. Carefully selected maps, drawings, and photographs complement the text. Lindberg's story rests on a large body of important scholarship produced by historians of science, philosophy, and religion over the past few decades. However, Lindberg does not hesitate to offer new interpretations and to hazard fresh judgments aimed at resolving long-standing historical disputes. Addressed to the general educated reader as well as to students, his book will also appeal to any scholar whose interests touch on the history of the scientific enterprise.
The articles selected for this volume explore emergent issues in the contemporary relationship between Islam and science and present studies of eight major voices in the discourse. Also included is a section on the operationalization of Islamic science in the modern world and a section on studies in traditional Islamic cosmology.
Rational Idealism and the Structure of World History
Author: Luʼayy Ṣāfī
The book examines the growing tension between social movements that embrace egalitarian and inclusivist views of national and global politics, most notably classical liberalism, and those that advance social hierarchy and national exclusivism, such as neoliberalism, neoconservatism, and national populism. In exploring issues relating to tensions and conflicts around globalization, the book identifies historical patterns of convergence and divergence rooted in the monotheistic traditions, beginning with the ancient Israelites that dominated the Near East during the Axial age, through Islamic civilization, and finally by considering the idealism-realism tensions in modern times. One thing remained constant throughout the various historical stages that preceded our current moment of global convergence: a recurring tension between transcendental idealism and various forms of realism. Transcendental idealism, which prioritize egalitarian and universal values, pushed periodically against the forces of realism that privilege established law and power structure. Equipped with the idealism-realism framework, the book examines the consequences of European realism that justified the imperialistic venture into Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America in the name of liberation and liberalization. The ill-conceived strategy has, ironically, engendered the very dysfunctional societies that produce the waves of immigrants in constant motion from the South to the North, simultaneously as it fostered the social hierarchy that transfer external tensions into identity politics within the countries of the North. The book focuses particularly on the role played historically by Islamic rationalism in translating the monotheistic egalitarian outlook into the institutions of religious pluralism, legislative and legal autonomy, and scientific enterprise at the foundation of modern society. It concludes by shedding light on the significance of the Muslim presence in Western cultures as humanity draws slowly but consistently towards what we may come to recognize as the Global Age. The Open Access version of this book, available at http: //www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781003203360, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.
This research offers a new lens through which al-al-Biruni's scholarship can be perceived. It provides an understanding of his broader analytical framework which has hitherto only been alluded to in passing by such persons the likes of Rosenthal and Lawrence among others. Drawing from a textual analysis of al-Bīrūnī's works ranging from his earliest to last, the thesis maps and attempts to give body to the pervading quality of universalism intrinsic to the corpus al-Birunicum. The study engages al-Biruni from three distinct yet necessarily interrelated trajectories. We begin with the socio-historical whereby we argue that al-Biruni approached the study of the Hindu civilisation not as a reaction to the political strategy pursued by Sultan Maḥmūd, but more so as a means to provide an Islamic intellectual understanding of Hinduism to learned Muslims. In this, we conclude that the interpretations of Sultan Maḥmūd's governance, especially towards the Hindus has coloured the ways in which al-Bīrūnī and his Kitāb al-Hind have been understood, and that for the most part, the far majority of historical representations of Sultan Maḥmūd have had significant political overtones culminating in a strategic misapprehension of Maḥmūd and by extension al-Bīrūnī. Following this, the thesis examines the axiological bases and theological foundations for a case of Islamic universalism from al-Biruni's scholarship. Here, we argue that within the broader theme of axiology, al-Biruni's deontological discourse in the introduction of his Kitab al-Hind was unprecedented in the study of religion and civilisations, and represents a truly Islamic spirit to civilisational expansion. The thesis concludes by extending the same set of eudemonic values that emphasise the moral courage to accept reason over desire to an aspect of al-Biruni's engagement with the scientific enterprise. Through a distinction between astronomy and astrology coupled with al-Biruni's criticism of Aristotelian astral physics, the thesis argues that the language of neutral science is an important aspect in any discourse on universalism. In this discussion, a preliminary case for an Islamic humanism is argued. Not only do we believe that this thesis will encourage a new perspective on how al-Bīrūnī and the Islamic civilisation is understood, it has a clear relevance to contemporary issues, especially those troubling the West, concerning cultural integration, immigration, and conflict management, among others.
During the Golden Age of Islam (seventh through seventeenth centuries A.D.), Muslim philosophers and poets, artists and scientists, princes and laborers created a unique culture that has influenced societies on every continent. This book offers a fully illustrated, highly accessible introduction to an important aspect of that culture—the scientific achievements of medieval Islam. Howard Turner opens with a historical overview of the spread of Islamic civilization from the Arabian peninsula eastward to India and westward across northern Africa into Spain. He describes how a passion for knowledge led the Muslims during their centuries of empire-building to assimilate and expand the scientific knowledge of older cultures, including those of Greece, India, and China. He explores medieval Islamic accomplishments in cosmology, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography, medicine, natural sciences, alchemy, and optics. He also indicates the ways in which Muslim scientific achievement influenced the advance of science in the Western world from the Renaissance to the modern era. This survey of historic Muslim scientific achievements offers students and general readers a window into one of the world's great cultures, one which is experiencing a remarkable resurgence as a religious, political, and social force in our own time.
The book describes the rise of science (and technology) in the Islamic Golden Age, examines the causes that led to its decline, reviews failed later attempts for its revival and finally discusses social and religious reformation needed for it to flourish in contemporary Muslim societies. Social reformation covers rule of law, democratic infra-structure and human-rights, while religious reformation involves the reinterpretation of scripture. It is argued that without such a social and religious reformation, Muslims (a quarter of the earth's population) will be less able to participate in the science-driven 21st century world. Note that Muslim leaders in the UK and elsewhere are not addressing the need of such an essential reformation, without which, Muslims as a people will remain in a limbo and thus continue to be vulnerable to extremist ideas. Therefore this book should be a must for all those interested in the creation of a harmonious one-world. Look at www.scienceunderislam.com for more information.
New Scientist magazine was launched in 1956 "for all those men and women who are interested in scientific discovery, and in its industrial, commercial and social consequences". The brand's mission is no different today - for its consumers, New Scientist reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour set in the context of society and culture.
An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy
Author: Arri Eisen
Category: Business & Economics
This unique encyclopedia explores the historical and contemporary controversies between science and religion. It is designed to offer multicultural and multi-religious views, and provide wide-ranging perspectives. "Science, Religion, and Society" covers all aspects of the religion and science dichotomy, from humanities to social sciences to natural sciences, and includes articles by theologians, religion scholars, physicians, scientists, historians, and psychologists, among others. The first section, General Overviews, contains essays that provide a road map for exploring the major challenges and questions in science and religion. Following this, the Historical Perspectives section grounds these major questions in the past, and demonstrates how they have developed into the six broad areas of contemporary research and discussion that follow. These sections - Creation, the Cosmos, and Origins of the Universe; Ecology, Evolution, and the Natural World; Consciousness, Mind, and the Brain; Healers and Healing; Dying and Death; and Genetics and Religion - organize the questions and research that are the foundation of the enormous interest, and controversy, in science and religion today.
This title was first published in 2002. This text seeks to provide the necessary background for understanding the contemporary relationship between Islam and modern science. Presenting an authentic discourse on the Islamic understanding of the physical cosmos, Muzaffar Iqbal explores God's relationship to the created world and the historical and cultural forces that have shaped and defined Muslim attitudes towards science. What was Islamic in the Islamic scientific tradition? How was it rooted in the Qur'anic worldview and whatever happened to it? These are some of the facets of this account of a tradition that spans eight centuries and covers a vast geographical region. Written from within, this ground-breaking exploration of some of the most fundamental questions in the Islam and science discourse, explores the process of appropriation and transformation of the Islamic scientific tradition in Europe during the three centuries leading up to the Scientific revolution.
This book examines how the prominent Muslim scholar Said Nursi developed an integrative approach to faith and science known as "the other indicative" (mana-i harfi) and explores how his aim to reconcile two academic disciplines, often at odds with one another, could be useful in an educational context. The book opens by examining Nursi’s evolving thought with regards to secular ideology and modern science. It then utilizes the mana-i harfi approach to address a number of issues, including truth and certainty, the relationship between knowledge and worldview formation, and the meaning of beings and life. Finally, it offers a seven-dimensional knowledge approach to derive meaning and build good character through understanding scientific knowledge in the mana-i harfi perspective. This book offers a unique perspective on one of recent Islam’s most influential figures, and also offers suggestions for teaching religion and science in a more nuanced way. It is, therefore, a great resource for scholars of Islam, religion and science, Middle East studies, and educational studies.
In secular Europe the veracity of modern science is almost always taken for granted. Whether they think of the evolutionary proofs of Darwin or of spectacular investigation into the boundaries of physics conducted by CERN's Large Hadron Collider, most people assume that scientific enquiry goes to the heart of fundamental truths about the universe. Yet elsewhere, science is under siege. In the USA, Christian fundamentalists contest whether evolution should be taught in schools at all. And in Muslim countries like Tunisia, Egypt, Pakistan and Malaysia, a mere 15 per cent of those recently surveyed believed Darwin's theory to be 'true' or 'probably true'. This thoughtful and passionately argued book contends absolutely to the contrary: not only that evolutionary theory does not contradict core Muslim beliefs, but that many scholars, from Islam's golden age to the present, adopted a worldview that accepted evolution as a given. Guessoum suggests that the Islamic world, just like the Christian, needs to take scientific questions - 'quantum questions' - with the utmost seriousness if it is to recover its true heritage and integrity. In its application of a specifically Muslim perspective to important topics like cosmology, divine action and evolution, the book makes a vital contribution to debate in the disputed field of 'science and religion'.