This thesis is concerned with the development of interactive systems for smart environments. One of the characteristic of smart environments is the need to support different interaction paradigms at runtime. On the one hand interaction is performed explicitly: the user performs an action in order to interact with the system (e.g., pressing a button to adjust the light). On the other hand actions of the user are interpreted by the smart environment, even though they have not been performed primarily to interact with the system: implicit interactions (e.g., walking to the speaker's desk to give a talk). A smart environment tries to infer those interactions to assist the user in her work (e.g., display slides at the projection canvas). Both interaction paradigms originate from different research fields and are currently treated independently although implicit and explicit interaction mutually influence each other and occur interleaved. The thesis introduces a task modeling language in order to cope with the given requirements of smart environments which can be used to perform interaction development for smart environments in a model-based fashion for both interaction paradigms.
Practical and concise, this introductory text for language teaching professionals is a guide to ESL assessment and to fulfilling the testing component of TESOL programs in the U.S. and around the world. Covering the fundamental descriptive and quantitative facets of effective language testing, it explicates key technical aspects in an accessible, non-technical manner. Each chapter includes relevant practical examples and is augmented by a partnered project that provides practical opportunities for readers to apply the concepts presented in real testing situations. Measurement and Evaluation in Post-Secondary ESL: Discusses effective methods of evaluating the language proficiency of college-bound English language learners in various skills areas such as reading, oral proficiency, and writing Takes a fresh look at accepted assessment concepts and issues such as validity and reliability, construct definition, authenticity, washback, reliable scoring, rater training, holistic and analytic rubrics, standardized tests, and statistical concepts Places special emphasis on innovative methods and alternative forms of assessment, such as self and portfolio assessment, as an adjunct to traditional methods Reviews the changes in the new internet-based Test of English a Second Language launched in 2005 Addresses the role and responsibilities of assessors
[This book is] absolutely wonderful. It will be my new Bible... I have used it loads already in preparation for my ICT Mark assessment. Taking on the role of ICT co-ordinator can be quite a daunting task but this step by step guide, breaking things down into manageable chunks will be very supportive. I love the blogging idea - the comments made by the characters are very realistic. This is just what new co-ordinators need, I wish I'd had this when I took over co-ordination of ICT! - Christine Beedham, Primary ICT adviser, Warrington Every primary school has the daunting task of embedding ICT and e-learning into their curriculum. This practical manual is the first part of a two volume set that together makes up a detailed two year training programme for primary ICT and e-learning co-ordinators. The books combine key strategies and information with a weblog discussion from a group of 'virtual' co-ordinators who share their problems, fears and successes over the two-year programme, based on the author's wide experience of working with new co-ordinators and experienced staff on training programmes and in general support. Book 1 is designed specifically for co-ordinators new to the role who need starting points and broad support. It presents a structured training programme split over three terms, guiding co-ordinators through the key stages of developing and implementing ICT policy and practice, including: o auditing existing school systems o reviewing and revising the school policy for ICT o reviewing the ways in which ICT is used as a teaching and learning tool across the curriculum o examining methods for the management of technical support services o establishing a clear overview of standards in ICT, including a review of assessment procedures, moderating work, monitoring teaching and learning and creating E Portfolios. The books have a companion website, which will offer downloadable versions of the photocopiable sheets from the book, as well as links to other sources of help and advice.
This comprehensive, interdisciplinary handbook reviews the latest methods and technologies used in automated essay evaluation (AEE) methods and technologies. Highlights include the latest in the evaluation of performance-based writing assessments and recent advances in the teaching of writing, language testing, cognitive psychology, and computational linguistics. This greatly expanded follow-up to Automated Essay Scoring reflects the numerous advances that have taken place in the field since 2003 including automated essay scoring and diagnostic feedback. Each chapter features a common structure including an introduction and a conclusion. Ideas for diagnostic and evaluative feedback are sprinkled throughout the book. Highlights of the book’s coverage include: The latest research on automated essay evaluation. Descriptions of the major scoring engines including the E-rater®, the Intelligent Essay Assessor, the IntellimetricTM Engine, c-raterTM, and LightSIDE. Applications of the uses of the technology including a large scale system used in West Virginia. A systematic framework for evaluating research and technological results. Descriptions of AEE methods that can be replicated for languages other than English as seen in the example from China. Chapters from key researchers in the field. The book opens with an introduction to AEEs and a review of the "best practices" of teaching writing along with tips on the use of automated analysis in the classroom. Next the book highlights the capabilities and applications of several scoring engines including the E-rater®, the Intelligent Essay Assessor, the IntellimetricTM engine, c-raterTM, and LightSIDE. Here readers will find an actual application of the use of an AEE in West Virginia, psychometric issues related to AEEs such as validity, reliability, and scaling, and the use of automated scoring to detect reader drift, grammatical errors, discourse coherence quality, and the impact of human rating on AEEs. A review of the cognitive foundations underlying methods used in AEE is also provided. The book concludes with a comparison of the various AEE systems and speculation about the future of the field in light of current educational policy. Ideal for educators, professionals, curriculum specialists, and administrators responsible for developing writing programs or distance learning curricula, those who teach using AEE technologies, policy makers, and researchers in education, writing, psychometrics, cognitive psychology, and computational linguistics, this book also serves as a reference for graduate courses on automated essay evaluation taught in education, computer science, language, linguistics, and cognitive psychology.
Sight and touch are two elementary, but highly complementary senses - for humans as well as for robots. This monograph develops an integrated vision/force control approach for robotics, combining the advantages of both types of sensors while overcoming their individual drawbacks. It shows how integrated vision/force control improves the task quality in the sense of increased accuracy and execution velocity and widens the range of feasible tasks. The unique feature of this work lies in its comprehensive treatment of the problem from the theoretical development of the various schemes down to the real-time implementation of interaction control algorithms on an industrial robot. The presented approach and its potential impact on the performance of the next generation of robots is starting to be recognized by major manufacturers worldwide.