Inheritance Theory

An Artificial Intelligence Approach

Author: Raad Al-Asady

Publisher: Intellect Books

ISBN:

Category: Computers

Page: 204

View: 498

Within artificial intelligence, the need to create sophisticated, intelligent behaviour based on common-sense reasoning has long been recognized. Research has demonstrated that formalism for dealing with common sense reasoning require nonmonotonic capabilities where, typically, inferences based on incomplete knowledge need to be revised in light of later information which fills in some of the gaps.

Formal Methods for Nonmonotonic and Related Logics

Vol II: Theory Revision, Inheritance, and Various Abstract Properties

Author: Karl Schlechta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 473

View: 594

The two volumes in this advanced textbook present results, proof methods, and translations of motivational and philosophical considerations to formal constructions. In the associated Vol. I the author explains preferential structures and abstract size. In this Vol. II he presents chapters on theory revision and sums, defeasible inheritance theory, interpolation, neighbourhood semantics and deontic logic, abstract independence, and various aspects of nonmonotonic and other logics. In both volumes the text contains many exercises and some solutions, and the author limits the discussion of motivation and general context throughout, offering this only when it aids understanding of the formal material, in particular to illustrate the path from intuition to formalisation. Together these books are a suitable compendium for graduate students and researchers in the area of computer science and mathematical logic.

Psychology - Evolution and Human Behavior

Dual Inheritance Theory, Evolutionary Psychology, Human Behavioral Ecology, List of Publications on Evoluti

Author: Source Wikia

Publisher: University-Press.org

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 74

View: 959

This book consists of articles from Wikia or other free sources online. Pages: 72. Chapters: Dual inheritance theory, Evolutionary psychology, Human behavioral ecology, List of publications on evolution and human behavior, Dual inheritance theory, Evolution and Human Behavior, Human behavioral ecology, Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Adaptive capacity, Adaptive dynamics, Archicortex, Assistance, Attention and colour, Baldwin effect, Behavioral ecology, Behavioral modernity, Behavioural genetics, Bibliography of evolution and human behavior, Bird evolution, Capture-bonding, Cognitive module, Colours of animals, Compartment, Competition, Competitive exclusion principle, Consanguinity, David J. Buller, Dear enemy recognition, Ecological Genetics, Ecological selection, Ethics and evolutionary psychology, Evolutionary arms race, Evolutionary cognitive neuroscience, Evolutionary developmental psychology, Evolutionary developmental psychopathology, Evolutionary educational psychology, Evolutionary factors in postpartum depression, Evolutionary psychoanalysis, Evolutionary psychology and emotion, Evolutionary psychology and suicide, Evolutionary psychology controversy, Evolutionary psychology paradigm of John Tooby and Leda Cosmides, Evolution and human sexuality, Evolution of intelligence, Evolution of memory, Evolution of the eye, Exaptation, Experimental evolution, Fertility and intelligence, Genetic distance, Genetic predisposition, Genotropism, Grandmother hypothesis, Green-beard effect, Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Human evolutionary genetics, Human mate selection, Hypergamy, Kin recognition, Leslie Zebrowitz, Lineage, List of evolutionary psychologists, List of publications on evolution and human behavior, Mating system, Mismatch theory, Moral values, Most recent common ancestor, Motivation to control hypothesis, Neo-teleology, Niche differentiation, Noogenesis, NorthEastern Evolutionary Psychology Society, Paleocortex, Parental expenditure, ..

Formal Methods for Nonmonotonic and Related Logics

Vol I: Preference and Size

Author: Karl Schlechta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 335

View: 105

The two volumes in this advanced textbook present results, proof methods, and translations of motivational and philosophical considerations to formal constructions. In this Vol. I the author explains preferential structures and abstract size. In the associated Vol. II he presents chapters on theory revision and sums, defeasible inheritance theory, interpolation, neighbourhood semantics and deontic logic, abstract independence, and various aspects of nonmonotonic and other logics. In both volumes the text contains many exercises and some solutions, and the author limits the discussion of motivation and general context throughout, offering this only when it aids understanding of the formal material, in particular to illustrate the path from intuition to formalisation. Together these books are a suitable compendium for graduate students and researchers in the area of computer science and mathematical logic.

Mixed Messages

Cultural and Genetic Inheritance in the Constitution of Human Society

Author: Robert A. Paul

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 306

As social and symbolic animals—animals with language and systems of signs—humans are informed by two different kinds of heritage, one biological, the other cultural. Scholars have tended to study our genetic and symbolic lineages separately, but in recent years some have begun to explore them together, offering a “dual inheritance theory.” In this book, Robert A. Paul offers an entirely new and original consideration of our dual inheritance to date, going deep inside an extensive ethnographic record to outline a fascinating relationship between our genetic codes and symbolic systems. Examining a wide array of cultures, Paul reveals how the inherent tensions between these two modes of transmission generate many of the features of human society, such as marriage rules, initiation rituals, gender asymmetry, and sexual symbolism. Exploring differences in the requirements, range, and agendas of genetic and symbolic reproduction, he shows that a properly conceived dual inheritance model does a better job of accounting for the distinctive character of actual human societies than either evolutionary or socio-cultural construction theories can do alone. Ultimately this book offers a powerful call for a synthesis of the traditions inspired by Darwin, Durkheim, and Freud—one that is critically necessary if we are to advance our understanding of human social life.

Formal Methods for Nonmonotonic and Related Logics

Vol I: Preference and Size

Author: Karl Schlechta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 335

View: 935

The two volumes in this advanced textbook present results, proof methods, and translations of motivational and philosophical considerations to formal constructions. In this Vol. I the author explains preferential structures and abstract size. In the associated Vol. II he presents chapters on theory revision and sums, defeasible inheritance theory, interpolation, neighbourhood semantics and deontic logic, abstract independence, and various aspects of nonmonotonic and other logics. In both volumes the text contains many exercises and some solutions, and the author limits the discussion of motivation and general context throughout, offering this only when it aids understanding of the formal material, in particular to illustrate the path from intuition to formalisation. Together these books are a suitable compendium for graduate students and researchers in the area of computer science and mathematical logic.

Organism and Environment

Inheritance and Subjectivity in the Life Sciences

Author: Russell Winslow

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 246

View: 550

In this book, Russell Winslow examines contemporary discourses in microbiology and evolutionary inheritance theory to center the metaphysical prejudices that unreflectively subtend these discourses, highlight and illuminate an emergent prejudice of an ecological ontology in microbiology, and determine what interpretive possibilities it affords.

A Useful Inheritance

Evolutionary Aspects of the Theory of Knowledge

Author: Nicholas Rescher

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 138

View: 513

The book formulates an evolutionary approach to the theory of knowledge, based on the parallelism between the natural selection of our cognitive capacities and the rational selection of the methodological processes by which we put them to work. The former reflects the biological evolution of homo sapiens, the latter the cultural evolution of homo quaerens through the development of a scientific community of inquirers with its characteristic practices. This dual aspect of cognitive evolution indicates that our human cognitive accomplishments are limited by our particular evolutionary attunement to the world's scheme of things and are bound to reflect the character of our particular evolutionary niche. The resulting doctrinal position is one of a realistic relativism.

Mathematical Topics in Population Genetics

Author: Ken-ichi Kojima

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 400

View: 200

A basic method of analyzing particulate gene systems is the proba bilistic and statistical analyses. Mendel himself could not escape from an application of elementary probability analysis although he might have been unaware of this fact. Even Galtonian geneticists in the late 1800's and the early 1900's pursued problems of heredity by means of mathe matics and mathematical statistics. They failed to find the principles of heredity, but succeeded to establish an interdisciplinary area between mathematics and biology, which we call now Biometrics, Biometry, or Applied Statistics. A monumental work in the field of popUlation genetics was published by the late R. A. Fisher, who analyzed "the correlation among relatives" based on Mendelian gene theory (1918). This theoretical analysis over came "so-called blending inheritance" theory, and the orientation of Galtonian explanations for correlations among relatives for quantitative traits rapidly changed. We must not forget the experimental works of Johanson (1909) and Nilsson-Ehle (1909) which supported Mendelian gene theory. However, a large scale experiment for a test of segregation and linkage of Mendelian genes affecting quantitative traits was, prob ably for the first time, conducted by K. Mather and his associates and Panse in the 1940's.

Contemporary Evolutionary Theories of Culture and the Study of Religion

Author: Radek Kundt

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN:

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 461

Radek Kundt compares the notion of evolution in cultural evolutionary theories with neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory to determine the value of the biological concept for studying culture. Contemporary Evolutionary Theories of Culture and the Study of Religion surveys the historical background of cultural evolution as used in the study of religion, pinpointing major objections to classical nineteenth-century theories. Radek Kundt argues that contemporary theories of cultural evolution do not repeat the same mistakes but that when they are evaluated in terms of fitting the core requirements of neo-Darwinian natural selection, it is clear that they are not legitimate extensions of neo-Darwinian theory. Rather, they are poor metaphors and misleading analogies which add little to conventional cause-and-effect historiographical work. This book also introduces an alternative evolutionary approach to the study of culture which does not claim that the principles of neo-Darwinian evolution should be applicable outside the biological domain. Radek Kundt shows that this alternative evolutionary approach nevertheless provides a deeply enriching line of enquiry that incorporates both biological evolutionary history as shaping cultural change and culture as a force acting on the gene.

The Evolution of Culture

Author: Stefan Linquist

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 538

View: 310

Recent years have seen a transformation in thinking about the nature of culture. Rather than viewing culture in opposition to biology, a growing number of researchers now regard culture as subject to evolutionary processes. Recent developments in this field have shifted some of the traditional academic fault lines. Alliances are forming between researchers trained in anthropology, evolutionary biology, psychology and philosophy. Meanwhile, several distinct schools of thought have appeared which differ in their vision of what an evolutionary approach to culture should look like. This volume contains some of the most influential publications on these subjects from the past few decades. A theoretical background chapter and critical introduction identify the core issues at stake in the new study of cultural evolution. These chapters are followed by sections on each of the four dominant approaches: the phylogenetic approach, memetics, dual inheritance theory and niche construction. Following these are two chapters on closely related topics: the psychological mechanisms of culture and the existence of culture in non-human animals. Overall, this volume provides an up to date overview of some of the most exciting trends in contemporary evolutionary thought.

Inheritance Theory and Networks with Roles

Author: Richmond H. Thomason

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Artificial intelligence

Page: 34

View: 998

Abstract: "We present a formalization of monotonic inheritance networks with roles. Roles (like the role father) are partial functions from individuals to individuals, and figure in universal-existential statements like 'every person has a father.' The networks we consider also permit relational statments [sic] such as 'every person's father loves that person's mother,' and equality statements among roles and individuals.

Type Inheritance and Relational Theory

Subtypes, Supertypes, and Substitutability

Author: C.J. Date

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN:

Category: Computers

Page: 572

View: 434

Type inheritance is that phenomenon according to which we can say, for example, that every square is also a rectangle, and so properties that apply to rectangles in general apply to squares in particular. In other words, squares are a subtype of rectangles, and rectangles are a supertype of squares. Recognizing and acting upon such subtype / supertype relationships provides numerous benefits: Certainly it can help in data modeling, and it can also provide for code reuse in applications. For these reasons, many languages, including the standard database language SQL, have long supported such relationships. However, there doesn’t seem to be any consensus in the community at large on a formal, rigorous, and abstract model of inheritance. This book proposes such a model, one that enjoys several advantages over other approaches, not the least of which it is that it’s fully compatible with the well known relational model of data. Topics the model covers include: Both single and multiple inheritance Scalar, tuple, and relation inheritance Type lattices and union and intersection types Polymorphism and substitutability Compile time and run time binding All of these topics are described in detail in the book, with numerous illustrative examples, exercises, and answers. The book also discusses several alternative approaches. In particular, it includes a detailed discussion and analysis of inheritance as supported in the SQL standard.

Memetics

Memes and the Science of Cultural Evolution

Author: Tim Tyler

Publisher: Tim Tyler

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 382

Memetics is the name commonly given to the study of memes - a term originally coined by Richard Dawkins to describe small inherited elements of human culture. Memes are the cultural equivalent of DNA genes - and memetics is the cultural equivalent of genetics. Memes have become ubiquitous in the modern world - but there has been relatively little proper scientific study of how they arise, spread and change - apparently due to turf wars within the social sciences and misguided resistance to Darwinian explanations being applied to human behaviour. However, with the modern explosion of internet memes, I think this is bound to change. With memes penetrating into every mass media channel, and with major companies riding on their coat tails for marketing purposes, social scientists will surely not be able to keep the subject at arm's length for much longer. This will be good - because an understanding of memes is important. Memes are important for marketing and advertising. They are important for defending against marketing and advertising. They are important for understanding and managing your own mind. They are important for understanding science, politics, religion, causes, propaganda and popular culture. Memetics is important for understanding the origin and evolution of modern humans. It provides insight into the rise of farming, science, industry, technology and machines. It is important for understanding the future of technological change and human evolution. This book covers the basic concepts of memetics, giving an overview of its history, development, applications and the controversy that has been associated with it.