In the 1960s, thanks to the development of prenatal diagnosis, medicine found a new object of study: the living fetus. At first, prenatal testing was proposed only to women at a high risk of giving birth to an impaired child. But in the following decades, such testing has become routine. In Imperfect Pregnancies, Ilana Löwy argues that the generalization of prenatal diagnosis has radically changed the experience of pregnancy for tens of millions of women worldwide. Although most women are reassured that their future child is developing well, others face a stressful period of waiting for results, uncertain prognosis, and difficult decisions. Löwy follows the rise of biomedical technologies that made prenatal diagnosis possible and investigates the institutional, sociocultural, economic, legal, and political consequences of their widespread diffusion. Because prenatal diagnosis is linked to the contentious issue of selective termination of pregnancy for a fetal anomaly, debates on this topic have largely centered on the rejection of human imperfection and the notion that we are now perched on a slippery slope that will lead to new eugenics. Imperfect Pregnancies tells a more complicated story, emphasizing that there is no single standardized way to scrutinize the fetus, but there are a great number of historically conditioned and situated approaches. This book will interest students, scholars, health professionals, administrators, and activists interested in issues surrounding new medical technologies, screening, risk management, pregnancy, disability, and the history and social politics of women’s bodies. -- Joanna Latimer, University of York, author of The Gene, the Clinic, and the Family: Diagnosing Dysmorphology, Reviving Medical Dominance
From the Archaeology of Plasticity to the Sociology of Epigenetics
Author: Maurizio Meloni
Category: Social Science
During the twentieth century, genes were considered the controlling force of life processes, and the transfer of DNA the definitive explanation for biological heredity. Such views shaped the politics of human heredity: in the eugenic era, controlling heredity meant intervening in the distribution of "good" and "bad" genes. However, since the turn of the twenty-first century, this centrality of genes has been challenged by a number of "postgenomic" disciplines. The rise of epigenetics in particular signals a shift from notions of biological fixedness to ideas of plasticity and "impressionability" of biological material. This book investigates a long history of the beliefs about the plasticity of human biology, starting with ancient medicine, and analyses the biopolitical techniques required to govern such permeability. It looks at the emergence of the modern body of biomedicine as a necessary displacement or possibly reconfiguration of earlier plastic views. Finally, it analyses the returning of plasticity to contemporary postgenomic views and argues that postgenomic plasticity is neither a modernistic plasticity of instrumental management of the body nor a postmodernist celebration of potentialities. It is instead a plasticity that disrupts clear boundaries between openness and determination, individual and community, with important implications for notions of risk, responsibility and intervention.
The #1 maternity book in the market is getting even better. Maternity and Women's Health Care, 11th Edition provides evidence-based coverage of everything you need to know about caring for women of childbearing age. Not only does this text emphasize childbearing concerns like newborn care, it also addresses wellness promotion and management of women's health problems. In describing the continuum of care, it integrates the importance of understanding family, culture, and community-based care. Boasting new medication alerts and updated content throughout, this edition covers the new maternal levels of care, and the revised AAP policy on breastfeeding and infant sleep. Expert authors of the market-leading maternity nursing textbook deliver the most accurate, up-to-date content. Clinical reasoning case studies provide you with opportunities to test and develop your analytical skills and to apply knowledge in various settings. Community Activity boxes focus on maternal and newborn activities that can be pursued in local community settings and illustrate nursing care in a variety of settings. Cultural Considerations stress the importance of considering the beliefs and health practices of patients from various cultures when providing care. Emergency boxes provide information about various emergency situations and offer a quick reference in critical situations. Family-Centered Care boxes highlight the needs and concerns of families that you should consider to provide family-centered care. Medication guides provide an important reference of drugs and their interactions. Nursing care plans include rationales for interventions and provide you with an overview of, and specific guidelines for, delivering effective nursing care. Safety alerts highlighted and integrated within the content draw attention to developing competencies related to safe nursing practice. Signs of potential complications highlight vital concerns, alerting you to signs and symptoms of complications and the immediate interventions to provide. Teaching for Self-Management boxes highlight important information that nurses need to communicate to patients and families for follow-up care. NEW! Content updates throughout give you the most current practice guidelines to promote quality care. Chapter 1 covers interprofessional education, accountable care organizations, and expanded content of TeamSTEPPS. Chapter 5 includes human trafficking and the implications on women’s health. Chapter 8 includes the most current forms of emergency contraception. Chapter 15 covers the March of Dimes initiative to eliminate elective births before 39 weeks of gestation. Chapter 19 covers the new maternal levels of care in the hospital setting. Chapter 24 will reflect the updated AAP policy on newborn circumcision. Chapter 25 will include the revised AAP policy on breastfeeding and infant sleep. NEW! Updated evidence-based practice boxes focus your attention on current research to improve patient outcomes. NEW! Medication alerts highlighted and integrated within the content alert you to critical drug information that you must consider to provide safe patient care.
Written by the world's preeminent authorities on diagnostic ultrasound, the Second Edition of this bestseller guides readers through the use of ultrasound to detect and identify birth defects--including heart malformations, kidney obstructions, intestinal blockages, lung abnormalities, and more. The book offers up-to-date advice on what to look for, given a certain risk or clinical history, and how to perform and interpret the ultrasound examination. More than 1,600 images--including full-color throughout--provide a true-to-life view of ultrasound findings. Each anomaly is discussed in an easy-to-follow format that covers characteristic features...pathogenesis and etiology...differential diagnosis...prognosis...and management. This edition includes brief tables of teratogens and information on genetic markers.
Points to the thousands of decisions about prenatal testing that are made each day in the doctors office, the context in which they occur, and how they add up to the discourse of the perfect-and imperfect-child. Argues that the mainstream bioethics community has been ineffective in raising appropriate questions, resulting in support for the status quo. Draws on counter-voices from medicine and feminist ethics, as well as from pregnant women and people with disabilities, and reevaluates the uses of genetics and prenatal testing. [back cover].
Issues in the Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects : Proceedings of a Conference Held by the National Center for Health Care Technology and the Food and Drug Administration, July 28-30, 1980, Washington
The most authoritative guide to sonography in obstetrics and gynecology—now in full color Companion website includes images, case studies, and more Written by radiologists and ob/gyns to provide a balanced perspective, this standard-setting guide is both a clinically relevant reference text and atlas—presented in full color for the first time. It expertly examines the full spectrum of disorders and conditions you’re likely to encounter in gynecologic and maternal-fetal care, supported throughout by more than 2,000 detailed sonographic illustrations. You’ll also find the latest procedures and diagnostic guidelines for the use of sonography in ob/gyn, including 3D and 4D image processing, transvaginal sonography, and color Dopler sonography. The book opens with general obstetric sonography, covering such pivotal topics as normal pelvic anatomy and fetal echocardiography, before moving into fetal anomalies and disorders. Risk assessment and therapy, including first trimester screening and amniocentesis, are explored in the next section, while the remaining parts of the book focus on maternal disorders, gynecological sonography, and the newest complementary imaging modalities. Features The most trusted, accessible compendium of sonography in obstetrics and gynecology for residents and practitioners, filled with precise illustrations that add clarity to the text’s content All-inclusive coverage of everything from sonographic operating instruments and screening the fetal patient for syndromes and anomalies, to diagnosing the female patient for cysts, infertility, and incontinence NEW! Full-color format to aid readability and ease of use NEW! Up-to-date information on the significant advances made in three dimensional and even four-dimensional Doppler technology NEW! Learning aids: a “key points” section in each chapter; skill-building clinical scenarios; a stronger focus on differential diagnosis; multiple visuals (figure, illustration, or table) on each page; and helpful chapter-opening summaries NEW! Companion website filled with concept-clarifying images, video loops, case studies supplemented by Q&As, plus cutting-edge insights on a range of integral sonography topics NEW! SI Units incorporated throughout