This volume is the first to bring together a number of studies on the Early Holocene of the California coast (ca. 10,000 to 6600 BP). Erlandson and Colten haveassembled contributions that may be of interest to a broad spectrum of scholars whose research pertains to any of the following: early sites in the Americas, coastal adaptations, hunter-gatherer adaptations, general Pacific coast prehistory, and the specific history of research on pre-6600 BP occupations of coastal California.
Based on detailed excavation data, the author reconstructs the paleography of the Santa Barbara coast ca. 8500 years ago, makes comparisons to other early California sites, and applies his findings to current theories of hunter-gatherers and coastal environments. With an emphasis on paleographic reconstructions, site formation processes, chronological studies, and integrated faunal analyses, the work will be of interest to a wide range of scholars working in shell middens, hunter-gatherer ecology, geoarchaeology, and coatal or aquatic adaptations.
When the Spanish colonized it in AD 1769, the California Coast was inhabited by speakers of no fewer than 16 distinct languages and an untold number of small, autonomous Native communities. These societies all survived by foraging, and ethnohistoric records show a wide range of adaptations emphasizing a host of different marine and terrestrial foods. Many groups exhibited signs of cultural complexity including sedentism, high population density, permanent social inequality, and sophisticated maritime technologies. The ethnographic era was preceded by an archaeological past that extends back to the terminal Pleistocene. Essays in this volume explore the last three and one half millennia of this long history, focusing on the archaeological signatures of emergent cultural complexity. Organized geographically, they provide an intricate mosaic of archaeological, historic, and ethnographic findings that illuminate cultural changes over time. To explain these Late Holocene cultural developments, the authors address issues ranging from culture history, paleoenvironments, settlement, subsistence, exchange, ritual, power, and division of labor, and employ both ecological and post-modern perspectives. Complex cultural expressions, most highly developed in the Santa Barbara Channel and the North Coast, are viewed alternatively as fairly recent and abrupt responses to environmental flux or the end-product of gradual progressions that began earlier in the Holocene.
Changes through time in the archaeological record of coastal California illuminate complex relationships between human beings and a rich, diverse coastal biome. With a long and impressive history of coastal archaeology, California scholars have a substantial empirical research base from which to address broader issues within the increasingly specialized subfield of maritime anthropology. The 16 papers in this volume attempt to explain changes in coastal hunter-gatherer behavior through time.Contributing Authors: JE Arnold, LE Christenson, JM Erlandson, D Gallegos, MA Glassow, GT Gross, DA Jones,TL Jones, D Laylander, KG Lightfoot, P Martz, LA Payen, LM Raab, EW Ritter, RA Salls, R Schwaderer, DD Simons, A Yatsko, DR Yesner
The Encyclopedia of Prehistory represents temporal dimension. Major traditions are an attempt to provide basic information also defined by a somewhat different set of on all archaeologically known cultures, sociocultural characteristics than are eth covering the entire globe and the entire nological cultures. Major traditions are prehistory of humankind. It is designed as defined based on common subsistence a tool to assist in doing comparative practices, sociopolitical organization, and research on the peoples of the past. Most material industries, but language, ideology, of the entries are written by the world's and kinship ties play little or no part in foremost experts on the particular areas their definition because they are virtually and time periods. unrecoverable from archaeological con The Encyclopedia is organized accord texts. In contrast, language, ideology, and ing to major traditions. A major tradition kinship ties are central to defining ethno is defined as a group of populations sharing logical cultures.
IN THIS ANTHOLOGY, Mark Raab and Terry Jones present a series of research articles that dispel lingering mythologies about California's prehistory. They begin with the most enduring notion--that of an essentially stable, benign climate--presenting evidence that prehistoric climate flux played a significant role in culture change. From there, Raab and Jones assault the myth of California as a natural cornucopia. They show that prehistoric foragers themselves had the capacity to negatively affect their animal food supplies, and that what is often considered the premier vegetal food, the acorn, appeared much later than many suppose in the diets of native peoples. This collection effectively summarizes the major debates surrounding California archaeology and provides a solid basis for a new, more nuanced view of the state's prehistory.
Prehistoric Context for the Southern California Bight
Author: Jeffrey H. Altschul
Publisher: Statistical Research
The southern California coast has been a favored place to live for nearly 12,000 years. Dotted with marshes, estuaries, cliffs, and open beaches, with islands and mountains lying nearby, the area is rich in resources. How humans have fit into this ecological diverse and ever-changing landscape is a constant theme in the prehistory of the region. Using comparative studies of island and coastal cultures from the Pacific, the authors show how the study of southern California's past can enlighten us about coastal adaptations worldwide. Drawing on sources from anthropology, ethnohistory, geoscience, and archaeology, their findings are presented in a readable fashion that will make Islanders and Mainlanders of interest not only to a wide range of scholars but to the general public as well. Jeffrey H. Altschul is President and Donn R. Grenda is Director of the California Office of Statistical Research, Inc., a cultural resource management consulting firm. Both have been extremely active in southern California archaeology, working on sites on the mainland and the Channel Islands.