Widens traditional concepts of forensic science to include humanitarian, social, and cultural aspects Using the preservation of the dignity of the deceased as its foundation, Forensic Science and Humanitarian Action: Interacting with the Dead and the Living is a unique examination of the applications of humanitarian forensic science. Spanning two comprehensive volumes, the text is sufficiently detailed for forensic practitioners, yet accessible enough for non-specialists, and discusses both the latest technologies and real-world interactions. Arranged into five sections, this book addresses the ‘management of the dead’ across five major areas in humanitarian forensic science. Volume One presents the first three of these areas: History, Theory, Practice, and Legal Foundation; Basic Forensic Information to Trace Missing Persons; and Stable Isotopes Forensics. Topics covered include: Protection of The Missing and the Dead Under International Law Social, Cultural and Religious Factors in Humanitarian Forensic Science Posthumous Dignity and the Importance in Returning Remains of the Deceased The New Disappeared – Migration and Forensic Science Stable Isotope Analysis in Forensic Anthropology Volume Two covers two further areas of interest: DNA Analysis and the Forensic Identification Process. It concludes with a comprehensive set of case studies focused on identifying the deceased, and finding missing persons from around the globe, including: Forensic Human Identification from an Australian Perspective Skeletal Remains and Identification Processing at the FBI Migrant Deaths along the Texas/Mexico Border Humanitarian Work in Cyprus by The Committee on Missing Persons (CMP) Volcán De Fuego Eruption – Natural Disaster Response from Guatemala Drawing upon a wide range of contributions from respected academics working in the field, Forensic Science and Humanitarian Action is a unique reference for forensic practitioners, communities of humanitarian workers, human rights defenders, and government and non-governmental officials.
Forensic DNA Evidence in Criminal Investigations and Humanitarian Disasters
Author: Henry Erlich
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Since its introduction in the late 1980s, DNA analysis has revolutionized the forensic sciences: it has helped to convict the guilty, exonerate the wrongfully convicted, identify victims of mass atrocities, and reunite families whose members have been separated by war and repressive regimes. Yet, many of the scientific, legal, societal, and ethical concepts that underpin forensic DNA analysis remain poorly understood, and their application often controversial. Told by over twenty experts in genetics, law, and social science, Silent Witness relates the history and development of modern DNA forensics and its application in both the courtroom and humanitarian settings. Across three thematic sections, Silent Witness tracks the scientific advances in DNA analysis and how these developments have affected criminal and social justice, whether through the arrests of new suspects, as in the case of the Golden State Killer, or through the ability to identify victims of war, terrorism, and human rights abuses, as in the cases of the disappeared in Argentina and the former Yugoslavia and those who perished during the 9/11 attacks. By providing a critical inquiry into modern forensic DNA science, Silent Witness underscores the need to balance the benefits of using forensic genetics to solve crime with the democratic right to safeguard against privacy invasion and unwarranted government scrutiny, and raises the question of what it means to be an autonomous individual in a world where the most personal elements of one's identity are now publicly accessible.
Forensic archaeology is mostly defined as the use ofarchaeological methods and principles within a legal context.However, such a definition only covers one aspect of forensicarchaeology and misses the full potential this discipline has tooffer. This volume is unique in that it contains 57 chapters fromexperienced forensic archaeological practitioners working indifferent countries, intergovernmental organisations orNGO’s. It shows that the practice of forensic archaeologyvaries worldwide as a result of diverse historical, educational,legal and judicial backgrounds. The chapters in this volume will bean invaluable reference to (forensic) archaeologists, forensicanthropologists, humanitarian and human rights workers, forensicscientists, police officers, professionals working in criminaljustice systems and all other individuals who are interested in thepotential forensic archaeology has to offer at scenes of crime orplaces of incident. This volume promotes the development offorensic archaeology worldwide. In addition, it proposes aninterpretative framework that is grounded in archaeological theoryand methodology, integrating affiliated behavioural and forensicsciences.
New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification provides a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on human identification methods in forensic anthropology. Divided into four distinct sections, the chapters will reflect recent advances in human skeletal identification, including statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, stature), biochemical methods of identification (DNA analysis, stable isotope analysis, bomb curve analysis), and use of comparative radiography. The final section of this book highlights advances in human identification techniques that are being applied to international populations and disaster victims. The contributing authors represent established experts in forensic anthropology and closely related fields. New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification will be an essential resource for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in state-of-the-art methods for human identification. A comprehensive and up-to-date volume on human identification methods in forensic anthropology Focuses on recent advances such as statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile, biochemical methods of identification and use of comparative radiography Includes an entire section on human identification techniques being applied to international populations and disaster victims
This robust, dynamic, and international field has grown to include interdisciplinary research, continually improving methodology, and globalization of training. Reflecting the diverse nature of the science from experts who have shaped it, Forensic Anthropology: A Comprehensive Introduction Second Edition builds off of the success of the first edition and incorporates standard practices in addition to cutting-edge approaches in a user-friendly format, making it an ideal introductory-level text.
Offers a diverse, interdisciplinary, and eye-opening view of the future direction of forensic science This one-of-a-kind book is a collection of content from the Past and Current Presidents of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences—providing readers with all of their forensic science experience, knowledge, insight, and wisdom. It envisions where forensic science will be a decade from now and the impact of these emerging advances on the law (along with our place in it), emphasizing theoretical advances, innovative leads from the laboratory, and emerging technologies. Filled with information from some of the greatest forensic minds of their generation, The Future of Forensic Science covers all of the eleven sections that comprise the AAFS. It discusses new directions in forensic anthropology, and looks at the future of such disciplines as criminalistics, forensic engineering science, forensic psychiatry and behavioral science, forensic toxicology, and forensic document examination. It also touches on the current and future state of digital and multimedia sciences. Contains contributions from an eminent group of forensic science experts Presents a valuable repository of forensic science experience, knowledge, insight, and wisdom Offers an insightful interdisciplinary look at the future of forensic science and how it is changing forensic science for the better Timed to coincide with the NIST forensic science initiative and the OSAC process The Future of Forensic Science is a must-have book for practicing forensic science professionals, academics, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in forensic science. This book is published as part of the AAFS series ‘Forensic Science in Focus’.
A guide to the interface between forensic anthropology and the United States legal system Designed for forensic anthropologists at all levels of expertise, Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System offers a comprehensive examination of how to effectively present osteological analyses, research and interpretations in the courtroom. Written by noted experts, the book contains an historical perspective of the topic, a review of current legislation that affects expert testimony as well as vital information on courtroom procedure and judicial expectation of experts. A comprehensive book, Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System explains how to prepare case reports and offers suggestions for getting ready for pre-trial interviews. The book also includes detailed information on affidavits, fee structures and dealing with opposing experts. This book is part of the popular Wiley – American Association for Forensic Sciences series and: Offers a unique volume that addresses the interface between forensic anthropology and the legal system Contains detailed guidelines for expert testimony by forensic anthropologists with all levels of experience, from beginner to expert Includes information from the perspective of the Judiciary in terms of process and expectations of the Court Shows how to maintain independence from, and collaborate with other experts Presents detailed explanations of current legislation impacting forensic science Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System is an information-filled guide for practitioners of the rapidly growing field that integrates forensic sciences and the judicial system.
Forensic archaeology is mostly defined as the use of archaeological methods and principles within a legal context. However, such a definition only covers one aspect of forensic archaeology and misses the full potential this discipline has to offer. This volume is unique in that it contains 57 chapters from experienced forensic archaeological practitioners working in different countries, intergovernmental organisations or NGO?s. It shows that the practice of forensic archaeology varies worldwide as a result of diverse historical, educational, legal and judicial backgrounds. The chapters in this volume will be an invaluable reference to (forensic) archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, humanitarian and human rights workers, forensic scientists, police officers, professionals working in criminal justice systems and all other individuals who are interested in the potential forensic archaeology has to offer at scenes of crime or places of incident. This volume promotes the development of forensic archaeology worldwide. In addition, it proposes an interpretative framework that is grounded in archaeological theory and methodology, integrating affiliated behavioural and forensic sciences.
Provides comprehensive coverage of everything that students and practitioners need to know about working in the field of forensic anthropology Forensic anthropology has been plagued by questions of scientific validity and rigor despite its acceptance as a section in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences nearly half a century ago. Critics have viewed it as a laboratory-based applied subfield of biological anthropology, and characterised it as emphasising methodology over theory. This book shows that these views are not only antiquated, but inadequate and inaccurate. Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis introduces readers to all of the theoretical and scientific foundations of forensic anthropology — beginning with how it was influenced by the early theoretical approaches of Tyler, Morgan, Spencer and Darwin. It instructs on how modern forensic science relies on an interdisciplinary approach — with research being conducted in the fields of archaeology, physics, geology and other disciplines. This modern approach to theory in forensic anthropology is presented through the introduction and discussion of Foundational, Interpretive and Methodological theories. Sections cover: Bias and Objectivity in Forensic Anthropology Theory and Practice; The Theory and Science Behind Biological Profile and Personal Identification; Scientific Foundation for Interpretations of Antemortem, Perimortem, and Postmortem Processes; and Interdisciplinary Influences, Legal Ramifications and Future Directions. Illustrates important aspects of the theory building process and reflects methods for strengthening the scientific framework of forensic anthropology as a discipline Inspired by the “Application of Theory to Forensic Anthropology” symposium presented at the 67th annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Chapters written by experts in the field who were presenters at the symposium Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis is ideal for university courses in anthropological science, forensic science, criminal science and forensic archaeology.
Forensic Chemistry is a comprehensive overview of the subject aimed at those students who have a basic understanding of the underlying principles and are looking for a more detailed reference text. This book is aimed at advanced students who are studying forensic science or analytical chemistry, faculty and researchers, and practitioners such as crime laboratory bench scientists. The authors will assume that the reader will have an introductory knowledge of forensic science and forensic chemistry and will have had analytical, organic and instrumental chemistry. None of the major analytical chemical techniques will have separate treatments in the book, with the exception of forensic microscopy, which will have a chapter because many students in chemistry and forensic science do not get dedicated classes in this area. The book will have separate chapters on all of the major areas of forensic chemistry and, in addition, will have a chapter devoted to chemometrics, which is the statistical treatment of large amounts of data to discover groupings, similarities and differences among the data. Each chapter will be written by an acknowledged international expert in that area. Each author will be given detailed instructions as to the intended audience, as well as expected breadth and depth of coverage of the material in the hopes that this will minimize the problem of uneven coverage of topics and chapters that often occurs in edited books. Although each of the types of evidence covered in the book use methods of analysis that lie outside chemistry, these will be mentioned only for completeness in passing. The emphasis will be on the use of chemical tools in evidence analysis. This book is designed to be either a text book for an advanced forensic chemistry course, or a treatise in forensic chemistry for the scientist who wants to learn the subject in some depth. It is not designed to be a survey of the current literature in the field or a reference manual.
As forensic human identification receives increased global attention, practitioners, policy makers, and students need an appropriate resource that describes current methods and modalities that have shaped today‘s policies and protocols. A supplemental follow-up to Forensic Human Identification: An Introduction, Advances in Forensic Human Identifica
'This volume represents a genuine attempt to think beyond the realms of what exists, to reflect on ideas postulated in the past that could be of great salience in the future. It presents the reader with a key question; to what extent are the contemporary concepts of human rights and the systems that support them equipped to address the challenges of a changed world? By thinking through some of the ideas of the past, with a set of promising young scholars alongside more established names, readers will gain a sense of how human rights politics have shaped the current regime while also becoming attuned to the extent to which new directions and mechanisms can be forged in the future. Many of the individuals whose contributions are encompassed in this volume have strong links to the Irish Centre for Human Rights, at the National University of Ireland, Galway, an institution that has had a significant impact in its first decade of existence under the stewardship of Professor William A. Schabas. This volume celebrates the success of the institution by showcasing some of the talent it has generated, and is likely to be of avid interest to all who care about the future of human rights.' – From the foreword by Joshua Castellino, Middlesex University, UK the Challenge of Human Rights takes a detailed and exploratory approach to topics across the field of human rights, and seeks to map a path for future research and policy development. It examines contemporary approaches to established rights, such as the right to peace and the protection against double jeopardy, while also revisiting overlooked or forgotten rights and concepts such as slavery, apartheid and the right to resist, determining the optimal place for those rights in today's world. the contributing authors outline lacunae in human rights law where rights could be established, from voting rights for under-18s to rights for the dead to cultural and intellectual property rights, and also apply completely new approaches to questions that have troubled human rights advocates for decades. This innovative book will be essential reading for researchers and practitioners of human rights law, political scientists, historians, and others who have a general interest in the future trajectory of human rights.
National Institute of Justice (U.S.). Technical Working Group for Mass Fatality Forensic Identification
Author: National Institute of Justice (U.S.). Technical Working Group for Mass Fatality Forensic Identification
Category: Accident victims
In a mass fatality incident, correct victim identification is essential to satisfying humanitarian considerations, meet civil and criminal investigative needs, and identify victim perpetrators. This report provides medical examiners/coroners with guidelines for preparing the portion of the disaster plan concerned with victim identification and summarizes the victim identification process for other first responders. It discusses the integration of the medical examiner/coroner into the initial response process, and presents the roles of various forensic disciplines (including forensic anthropology, radiology, odontology, fingerprinting, and DNA analysis) in victim identification. This guide represents the experience of dozens of Federal, State and private forensic experts who took part in the Technical Working Group for Mass Fatality Forensic Identification.
During the 24-year Indonesian occupation of Timor-Leste, thousands of people died or were killed in circumstances that did not allow the required death rituals to be performed at the time. Since the country attained independence in 1999, families have consequently devoted significant time, effort and resources to fulfilling their obligations to the dead. These obligations are accorded particular significance due to the fact that the dead are ascribed agency and can play a benevolent or malevolent role in the lives of the living. Such grassroots initiatives run in parallel with, and reveal a range of different attitudes towards, official initiatives that seek to transform particular dead bodies into public symbols of heroism, sacrifice and nationhood. This book focuses on the dynamic interplay between the potent presence of the dead in everyday life and their symbolic usefulness in wider processes of state and nation formation.
In this book, John P. Pace provides the most complete account to-date of the United Nations human rights programme, both in substance and in chronological breadth. Pace worked at the heart of this programme for over thirty years, including as the Secretary of the Commission on Human Rights, and Coordinator of the World Conference on Human Rights, which took place in Vienna in 1993. He traces the issues taken up by the Commission after its launch in 1946, and the methods undertaken to enhance absorption and domestication of international human rights standards. He lays out the special procedures carried out by the UN, and the emergence of international human rights law. The book then turns to the establishment of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the mainstreaming of human rights across the United Nations system, eventually leading to the establishment of the Human Rights Council to replace the Commission in 2006. Many of the problems we face today, including conflict, poverty, and environmental issues, have their roots in human rights problems. This book identifies what has been done at the international level in the past, and points towards what still needs to be done for the future.
This book describes the state of the art and future prospects of the most important bio-medicolegal subdisciplines in the post-genomic framework of personalized medicine. Focusing on the three main themes Innovation, Unitariness and Evidence, the book addresses a wide range of topics, including: Bio-Medicolegal and Criminological Sciences, Forensic Pathology and Anthropology, Clinical and Forensic Medicine in Living Persons (from Interpersonal Violence to Personal Injury and Damage, Malpractice, Personal Identification and Age Estimation), Forensic Genetics and Genomics, and Toxicology and Imaging. The unitariness of the “Bio-Medicolegal Sciences”, historically founded on the accuracy and rigor of the methods of ascertainment and criteria of evaluation, should be re-established on the basis of molecular evidence, and used to promote Personalized Justice. Taken together, the book’s conclusions and future perspectives outline a vision of transdisciplinary innovation and future evidence in the framework of personalized justice.
Identity theft, criminal investigations of the dead or missing, mass disasters both by natural causes and by criminal intent with this as our day to day reality, the establishment and verification of human identity has never been more important or more prominent in our society. Maintaining and protecting the integrity of out identity has reached