Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.
This series of books deals with the mathematical modeling and computational simulation of complex wave propagation phenomena in science and engineering. This first volume of the series introduces the basic mathematical and physical fundamentals, and it is mainly intended as a reference guide and a general survey for scientists and engineers. It presents a broad and practical overview of the involved foundations, being useful as much in industrial research, development, and innovation activities, as in academic labors.
An easy-to-use guide that shows how to read, understand, and do proofs. Shows how any proof can be understood as a sequence of techniques. Covers the full range of techniques used in proofs, such as the contrapositive, induction, and proof by contradiction. Explains how to identify which techniques are used and how they are applied in the specific problem. Illustrates how to read written proofs with many step-by-step examples. Includes new, expanded appendices related to discrete mathematics, linear algebra, modern algebra and real analysis.
Almost every student has to study some sort of mathematical proofs, whether it be in geometry, trigonometry, or with higher-level topics. In addition, mathematical theorems have become an interesting course for many students outside of the mathematical arena, purely for the reasoning and logic that is needed to complete them. Therefore, it is not uncommon to have philosophy and law students grappling with proofs. This book is the perfect resource for demystifying the techniques and principles that govern the mathematical proof area, and is done with the standard “Demystified” level, questions and answers, and accessibility.
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This is the first workbook that introduces the multilevel approach to modeling with categorical outcomes using IBM SPSS Version 20. Readers learn how to develop, estimate, and interpret multilevel models with categorical outcomes. The authors walk readers through data management, diagnostic tools, model conceptualization, and model specification issues related to single-level and multilevel models with categorical outcomes. Screen shots clearly demonstrate techniques and navigation of the program. Modeling syntax is provided in the appendix. Examples of various types of categorical outcomes demonstrate how to set up each model and interpret the output. Extended examples illustrate the logic of model development, interpretation of output, the context of the research questions, and the steps around which the analyses are structured. Readers can replicate examples in each chapter by using the corresponding data and syntax files available at www.psypress.com/9781848729568. The book opens with a review of multilevel with categorical outcomes, followed by a chapter on IBM SPSS data management techniques to facilitate working with multilevel and longitudinal data sets. Chapters 3 and 4 detail the basics of the single-level and multilevel generalized linear model for various types of categorical outcomes. These chapters review underlying concepts to assist with trouble-shooting common programming and modeling problems. Next population-average and unit-specific longitudinal models for investigating individual or organizational developmental processes are developed. Chapter 6 focuses on single- and multilevel models using multinomial and ordinal data followed by a chapter on models for count data. The book concludes with additional trouble shooting techniques and tips for expanding on the modeling techniques introduced. Ideal as a supplement for graduate level courses and/or professional workshops on multilevel, longitudinal, latent variable modeling, multivariate statistics, and/or advanced quantitative techniques taught in psychology, business, education, health, and sociology, this practical workbook also appeals to researchers in these fields. An excellent follow up to the authors’ highly successful Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling with IBM SPSS and Introduction to Multilevel Modeling Techniques, 2nd Edition, this book can also be used with any multilevel and/or longitudinal book or as a stand-alone text introducing multilevel modeling with categorical outcomes.