This book is an introduction to health care as a complex adaptive system, a system that feeds back on itself. The first section introduces systems and complexity theory from a science, historical, epistemological, and technical perspective, describing the principles and mathematics. Subsequent sections build on the health applications of systems science theory, from human physiology to medical decision making, population health and health services research. The aim of the book is to introduce and expand on important population health issues from a systems and complexity perspective, highlight current research developments and their implications for health care delivery, consider their ethical implications, and to suggest directions for and potential pitfalls in the future.
'Over recent years Complexity Science has revealed to us new limits to our possible knowledge and control in social, cultural and economic systems. Instead of supposing that past statistics and patterns will give us predictable outcomes for possible actions, we now know the world is, and will always be, creative and surprising. Continuous structural evolution within such systems may change the mechanisms, descriptors, problems and opportunities, often negating policy aims. We therefore need to redevelop our thinking about interventions, policies and policy making, moving perhaps to a humbler, more 'learning' approach. In this Handbook, leading thinkers in multiple domains set out these new ideas and allow us to understand how these new ideas are changing policymaking and policies in this new era.' - Peter M Allen, Cranfield University, UK
The history of public health has focused on direct relationships between problems and solutions: vaccinations against diseases, ad campaigns targeting risky behaviors. But the accelerating pace and mounting intricacies of our lives are challenging the field to find new scientific methods for studying community health. The complexities of place (COP) approach is emerging as one such promising method. Place and Health as Complex Systems demonstrates how COP works, making an empirical case for its use in for designing and implementing interventions. This brief resource reviews the defining characteristics of places as dynamic and evolving social systems, rigorously testing them as well as the COP approach itself. The study, of twenty communities within one county in the Midwest, combines case-based methods and complexity science to determine whether COP improves upon traditional statistical methods of public health research. Its conclusions reveal strengths and limitations of the approach, immediate possibilities for its use, and challenges regarding future research. Included in the coverage: Characteristics of places and the complexities of place approach. The Definitional Test of Complex Systems. Case-based modeling using the SACS toolkit. Methods, maps, and measures used in the study. Places as nodes within larger networks. Places as power-based conflicted negotiations. Place and Health as Complex Systems brings COP into greater prominence in public health research, and is also valuable to researchers in related fields such as demography, health geography, community health, urban planning, and epidemiology.
How to Make Health Care Person-Centered, Equitable, and Sustainable
Author: Joachim P. Sturmberg
This forward-looking volume challenges professionals and interested lay readers to reconsider our ways of looking at health and wellness, illness and disease, and the goals of health/healthcare systems. Reframing health systems as complex adaptive systems, the book identifies health care as a central aspect of social care and security for all people, particularly the most vulnerable. From there, the author outlines necessary organizational, design, medical, and community steps toward building health systems that view and practice health care as a human right and can produce optimum care in the long term. And extensive illustrations display effective collaborative problem solving within these systems, in both intriguing theoretical models and the real world. Highlights of the coverage: · Systems and complexity thinking in health and health care · Redesign based on “first principles” · Redesign from an organizational perspective · Working together effectively and efficiently to achieve a common purpose · Analyzing “the workings” of health systems as complex adaptive systems · Person-centered, equitable, and sustainable health systems: achieving the goal Health System Redesign brings a voice and a vision to the most pressing problems in healthcare service delivery, and offers new goals and purpose to health policymakers, health financiers, organizational leaders, clinicians, and concerned members of the local community
Includes established theories and cutting-edge developments. Presents the work of an international group of experts. Presents the nature, origin, implications, an future course of major unresolved issues in the area.
This visionary reframing of health and healthcare uses a complexity science approach to building healthcare systems that are accessible, effective, and prepared for change and challenges. Its holistic map for understanding the human organism emphasizes the interconnectedness of the individual’s physical, psychological, cognitive, and sociocultural functioning. Applications of this approach are described in primary, specialist, and emergency care and at the organizational and policy levels, from translating findings to practice, to problem solving and evaluation. In this model, the differences between disease and illness and treating illness and restoring health are not mere wordplay, but instead are robust concepts reflecting real-world issues and their solutions. Based on the Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of Systems and Complexity for Healthcare, topics covered include: • Coping with complexity and uncertainty: insights from studying epidemiology in family medicine • Anticipation in complex systems: potential implications for improving safety and quality in healthcare • Monitoring variability and complexity at the bedside • Viewing mental health through the lens of complexity science • Ethical complexities in systems healthcare: what care and for whom? • The value of systems and complexity thinking to enable change in adaptive healthcare organizations supported by informatics • If the facts don’t fit the theory, change the theory: implications for health system reform The Value of Systems and Complexity Sciences for Healthcare will interest and inspire health and disease researchers, health professionals, health care planners, health system financiers, health system administrators, health services administrators, health professional educators, and, last but not least, current and future patients.
The chapters within these sections include learning objectives with boldfaced keywords and a glossary of terms. Each chapter addresses The magnitude of the public health burden Key determinants and conceptual framework for behaviors and behavior change, including individual, familial, interpersonal, community, sociocultural, structural, and political perspectives Current evidence-based interventions and best practices Roles for key stakeholders, including health plans, employers/workplace, health departments/agencies, sectors such as recreational and agricultural, policymakers, community groups/advocates, clinics/clinicians, researchers, and funding institutions Considerations for implementation, evaluation, and translation
Author: Management Association, Information Resources
Publisher: IGI Global
As modern technologies continue to develop and evolve, the ability of users to interface with new systems becomes a paramount concern. Research into new ways for humans to make use of advanced computers and other such technologies is necessary to fully realize the potential of 21st century tools. Human-Computer Interaction: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications gathers research on user interfaces for advanced technologies and how these interfaces can facilitate new developments in the fields of robotics, assistive technologies, and computational intelligence. This four-volume reference contains cutting-edge research for computer scientists; faculty and students of robotics, digital science, and networked communications; and clinicians invested in assistive technologies. This seminal reference work includes chapters on topics pertaining to system usability, interactive design, mobile interfaces, virtual worlds, and more.
This idea-packed resource takes systems and complexity sciences out of blue-sky territory and into the concrete world of contemporary healthcare practice. Beginning with a new reframing of health and illness, its chapters redesign traditional disease-centered models of care into modern, health-centered—and patient-centered—health service systems. The approaches shown here combine innovation and common sense to recognize and attend to patients’ needs across areas including health education and training, information accessibility, health service organization and delivery, and disease in individual context. The variety of solutions applied to this wide spectrum of issues shows the suitability of systems, complexity, and adaptive thinking to the ongoing objectives of making health services more responsive, effective, and equitable. Highlights of the coverage: Healthy smoker: an oxymoron? Maybe, but it is more complicated than that Transforming monitoring and improving care with variability-derived clinical decision support Linking Gulf War illness to genome instability, somatic evolution, and complex adaptive systems Complexity of knowledge in primary care: understanding the discipline’s requisite knowledge: a bibliometric study New ways of knowing and researching: integrating complexity into a translational health sciences program Understanding the emergency department ecosystem using agent-based modelling Putting Systems and Complexity Sciences into Practice is an inspiring idea book that sill interest health policymakers, health financiers, organizational leaders, healthcare administrators, clinicians, researchers, students, and interested lay readers.
Rethinking Genetics, Evolution, and Molecular Medicine
Author: Henry H. Heng
Publisher: Academic Press
Genome Chaos: Rethinking Genetics, Evolution, and Molecular Medicine transports readers from Mendelian Genetics to 4D-genomics, building a case for genes and genomes as distinct biological entities, and positing that the genome, rather than individual genes, defines system inheritance and represents a clear unit of selection for macro-evolution. In authoring this thought-provoking text, Dr. Heng invigorates fresh discussions in genome theory and helps readers reevaluate their current understanding of human genetics, evolution, and new pathways for advancing molecular and precision medicine. Bridges basic research and clinical application and provides a foundation for re-examining the results of large-scale omics studies and advancing molecular medicine Gathers the most pressing questions in genomic and cytogenomic research Offers alternative explanations to timely puzzles in the field Contains eight evidence-based chapters that discuss 4d-genomics, genes and genomes as distinct biological entities, genome chaos and macro-cellular evolution, evolutionary cytogenetics and cancer, chromosomal coding and fuzzy inheritance, and more