On the evening of February 17, 1864, the Confederacy's H. L. Hunley sank the USS Housatonic and became the first submarine in world history to sink an enemy ship. Not until World War I—half a century later—would a submarine again accomplish such a feat. But also perishing that moonlit night, vanishing beneath the cold Atlantic waters off Charleston, South Carolina, was the Hunley and her entire crew of eight. For generations, searchers prowled Charleston's harbor, looking for the Hunley. And as they hunted, the legends surrounding the boat and its demise continued to grow. Even after the submarine was definitively located in 1995 and recovered five years later, those legends—those barnacles of misinformation—have only multiplied. Now, in a tour de force of document-sleuthing and insights gleaned from the excavation of this remarkable vessel, distinguished Civil War–era historian Tom Chaffin presents the most thorough telling of the Hunley's story possible. Of panoramic breadth, this Civil War saga begins long before the submarine was even assembled and follows the tale into the boat's final hours and through its recovery in 2000. Beyond his thorough survey of period documents relating to the submarine, Chaffin also conducted extensive interviews with Maria Jacobsen, senior archaeologist at Clemson University's Warren Lasch Conservation Center, where the Hunley is now being excavated, to complete his portrait of this technological wonder. What emerges is a narrative that casts compelling doubts on many long-held assumptions, particularly those concerning the boat's final hours. Thoroughly engaging and utterly new, The H. L. Hunley provides the definitive account of a storied craft.
During the Civil War, Union forces blockade the port of Charleston so the Confederate army seeks a way to attack the Yankee ships. George Dixon is part of the group of men given the task of creating and building the "fish boat," a submarine. The H.L. Hunley ultimately sets out on its mission to sink Yankee ships, but fails to return, its whereabouts unknown. For more than 100 years, the mystery of the Hunley and the fate of its crew stayed buried. The Story of the H.L. Hunley and Queenie's Coin recounts the story of the "fish boat," through its creation and mission, to its ultimate recovery and final voyage home. Fran Hawk and her husband live in Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, near several Hunley landmarks. For the past ten years, she has enjoyed her job as a children's librarian in her local school district. Currently she works in a small alternative high school for at-risk students. She writes a weekly children's book review column for the Charleston Post and Courier and writes freelance articles for magazines. Dan Nance has published dozens of extraordinary and provocative images of the Civil War. Agraduate of the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York, Dan's work has graced numerous book and magazine covers and is widely respected by both scholars and historical interpreters alike. Dan has works in the permanent collection of the South Carolina State Museum. He lives with his family in Charlotte, North Carolina.
The story of the H. L. Hunley submarine is about American ingenuity and real people who were inventive, loyal, brave, resilient, persistent, and adventurous. The Hunley, built by the Confederate Army during the Civil War, was the first submarine to sink an enemy ship during wartime. After that historic feat, the Hunley disappeared. For more than a century, the fate and location of the Confederate submarine remained unknown. In The H. L. Hunley Submarine, Fran Hawk tells the exciting and compelling tale of how the “fish boat” was invented, how it underwent trials and tribulations in war, and how it got from the bottom of the ocean to its current resting place in the Warren Lasch Conservation Center in North Charleston, South Carolina. Who invented the H. L. Hunley? How did it operate without an engine? How and why did it sink? What did researchers find when they investigated the submarine? Archaeologists and conservationists from all over the world have studied the historic vessel in search of answers. Which mysteries have they solved, and which mysteries remain for future generations to answer?
The author describes how the scientists searched for the missing submarine the H L Hunley, and how they found it and raised it from the sea floor. She also describes the following investigation of the vessel and findings.
On a dark night in February of 1864, the H.L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink an enemy ship in combat, torpedoed the Union blockade ship USS Housatonic, a feat that would not be repeated for another 50 years. But fate was not kind to the Hunley that night as it sank with all of its crew on board before it could return to shore. Considered by many to be the Civil War’s greatest mystery, the Hunley’s demise and its resting place have been a topic of discussion for historians and Civil War buffs alike for more than a hundred years. Adding still more to the intrigue, the vessel was discovered in 1995 by a dive team led by famed novelist and shipwreck hunter Clive Cussler, sparking an underwater investigation that resulted in the raising of the Hunley on August 8, 2000. Since that time, the extensive research and restorative efforts underway have unraveled the incredible secrets that were locked within the submarine at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. Join Civil War expert Brian Hicks as Sea of Darkness recounts the most historically accurate narrative of the sinking and eventual recovery ever written. Hicks has been given unprecedented access to all the main characters involved in the discovery, raising, and restoration of the Hunley. Complete with a foreword and additional commentary by Clive Cussler, Sea of Darkness offers new, never-before-published evidence on the cause of the Hunley’s sinking, providing readers a tantalizing behind-the-scenes look inside the historic submarine.
On 3 May 1995, a team of maritime investigators under the direction of novelist Clive Cussler made a remarkable discovery four nautical miles (7.4 km) off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina: the wreck of the Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley, lost without a trace since the night of 17 February 1864, shortly after it exploded a torpedo filled with black powder underneath USS Housatonic, sending that ship to the bottom within minutes. This event marked the first time a submarine sank an enemy ship and at once exemplified both the promise and the risks of underwater warfare. The discovery culminated many years of search by the team, and many others, over 130 years since Hunley's loss (Chapter 4). News of the Civil War find was celebrated by many who had long wondered why the small underwater craft never made it home that fateful night, as well as by those who had a keen interest in the maritime history and technological developments of the 19th century. It was also a double-edged sword: by locating the site, opportunities for scholarship and public education were opened up, but so were avenues for illicit looting or well-intentioned but ill-planned recovery attempts that would destroy the site and possibly the boat itself.
Excerpt from H. L. Hunley Site Assessment It is important to observe that there were some predictable reactions resulting from Hunley's discovery and, therefore, some of the problematic issues that developed could have been resolved between agencies through early coordination and development of an administrative strategy for managing the shipwreck. Given the lack of a formal agreement between the State of South Carolina and the Department of the Navy (navy) or the General Services Administration (gsa) concerning exploration and administration of the submarine, it was inevitable that Hunley would become a controversial and highly politicized shipwreck. Some of Hunley's predecessors, whose discoveries and proposed recoveries have resulted in similar controversy, include the shipwrecks Alabama, Somers, Tecumseh, Hamilton and Scourge. Despite problems occurring during 1995 and 1996, the major players were able to overcome their differences. Concerns for the submarine's safety and how to best manage it led to exceptional responses, resulting in state and federal cooperation in the management of Hunley. Over the course of negotiations concerning Hunley, the site became one of the most protected shipwrecks in the United States. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.