Guidelines for Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers in Layer of Protection Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 136

View: 404

The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediatemethod between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis andmore quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides anorder-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducibleresults. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safetyintegrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces thelimitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of theguideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provideconcrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to usethese concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer ofProtection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizesterminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of atypical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the mostcommon types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to riskcriteria as well as their application to other methods.

Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 305

The book is a guide for Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA)practitioners. It explains the onion skin modeland in particular, how it relates to the use of LOPA and the needfor non-safety instrumented independent protection layers. Itprovides specific guidance on Independent Protection Layers (IPLs)that are not Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). Using theLOPA methodology, companies typically take credit for riskreductions accomplished through non-SIS alternatives; i.e.administrative procedures, equipment design, etc. Itaddresses issues such as how to ensure the effectiveness andmaintain reliability for administrative controls or“inherently safer, passive” concepts. This book will address how the fields of Human ReliabilityAnalysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Inherent Safety, Audits andAssessments, Maintenance, and Emergency Response relate to LOPA andSIS. The book will separate IPL’s into categories such as thefollowing: Inherent Safety eliminates a scenario or fundamentally reduces a hazard Preventive/Proactive prevents initiating event from occurring such as enhancedmaintenance Preventive/Active stops chain of events after initiating event occurs but beforean incident has occurred such as high level in a tank shutting offthe pump. Mitigation (active or passive) minimizes impact once an incident has occurred such as closingblock valves once LEL is detected in the dike (active) or the dikepreventing contamination of groundwater (passive).

Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 765

8.2.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 1 -- 8.2.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 1 -- 8.3 Example 2 -- 8.3.1 Process Description 2 -- 8.3.2 Traditional DHA -- 8.3.3 Risk-based DHA -- 8.3.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 2 -- 8.4 Example 3 -- 8.4.1 Process Description - Example 3 -- 8.4.2 Traditional DHA - Example 3 -- 8.4.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 3 -- 8.5 Summary -- 8.6 References -- Appendix A Regulations and Codes -- A.1 Regulations -- A.1.1 U.S. -- A.1.2 International -- A.2 Codes -- References -- Appendix B Additional Resources -- B.1 Books -- B.2 U.S. Chemical Safety Board Reports -- B.3 Journal Articles -- B.4 Other -- Appendix C Data for Risk-based DHA -- C.1 Probability Assessment of Process Unit Fire or Dust Explosion -- C.1.1 Initiating Event Frequencies -- C.1.2 Ignition Probabilities -- C.1.3 Protection Layer PFDs -- C.2 References -- Appendix D Good Practices -- D.1 Self Assessment -- D.2 Housekeeping -- D.2.1 Combustible Dust Housekeeping Inspection Checklist -- D.3 Explosion Protection Methods -- Appendix E DHA Roadmap -- Notes for Figure E.1 -- INDEX -- EULA

Issues in Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology: 2011 Edition

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 2350

View: 670

Issues in Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology. The editors have built Issues in Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.