Geophysical techniques can map the underground conditions apart from boreholes. The use of these methods for hydrogeological applications is demonstrated for mapping of porous and structural aquifers, determination of groundwater quality (mineralization), assessment of hydraulic properties, determination of aquifer vulnerability and mapping of contaminated sites. Additionally, a description of geophysical techniques used for groundwater studies is given including seismics, resistivity methods, magnetics, ground penetrating radar and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). In this second edition new chapters on RMT (radio magnetotelluric) and on the determination of groundwater flow in monitoring wells are included.
In hard rock terrain, shallow water wells generally have a poor to moderate yield. Sinking wells deeply to tap yielding fracture zones often backfires, because the borehole may miss the saturated fracture zones at depths. A wrong approach to groundwater exploration in hard rock has therefore often led to unnecessary recurring expenditures and waste of time, something that could have been avoided by a systematic and proper geophysical approach. The combination of various geophysical techniques with environmental conditions is essential to constrain the interpretation and reduce uncertainties in this respect. This book presents the approach to groundwater exploration in hard rocks, various geophysical techniques and combinations to be used, interpretation of data with case studies and drilling results and the preparation of different utility maps.
Management, (Bio)Technological, and Political Approaches to Avoid Conflicts
Author: Christophe J.G. Darnault
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book from the NATO ASI on "Overexploitation and Contamination of Shared Groundwater Resources Management, (Bio)technological, and Political Approaches to Avoid Conflicts" is written by authors from different disciplines and regions of the world. The aim of the book is to contribute to the knowledge of shared groundwater resources management to avoid conflicts by considering multi-disciplinary approaches based on effective and equitable water sharing for all water users.
Groundwater Resource Development describes the basic steps involved in the development of a groundwater resource in the search for productive aquifers. This book discusses groundwater exploration, construction and testing of water wells, water quality and pollution considerations, and groundwater management. This text is comprised of 10 chapters and begins by presenting the steps in the evaluation, development, and management of an aquifer for water supply. The reader is then introduced to the fundamentals of groundwater, with emphasis on their origin and occurrence as well as the influence of porosity and permeability on groundwater accumulation, migration, and distribution. The chapters that follow focus on groundwater exploration, assessment of aquifer recharge and potential well yield, and factors affecting the quality of groundwater. The issues to be considered in well design and construction are also highlighted, along with aquifer hydraulics and pumping tests, groundwater pollution, and optimum management of groundwater resources. This text concludes with a chapter on techniques used in modeling the response of a groundwater reservoir. This book will be of value to geologists, civil engineers, environmental scientists, mathematicians, chemists, water well contractors, and others involved in the profession of water engineering.
This bulletin contains six papers that provide details for each component of the Fraser Lowland Hydrogeology Project. The principal aims of the Project included: developing a groundwater-hydrogeology database; testing the efficacy of various geophysical techniques for mapping; and undertaking preliminary groundwater modelling. The first paper outlines the database structure, with emphasis on the methods developed for mapping aquifers & aquitards using a geographic information system. The next three papers describe research on using electromagnetic, seismic reflection, and ground penetrating radar methods for mapping Fraser Lowland aquifers. The fourth paper focuses on the Brookswood aquifer and the use of radar to identify critical hydro-stratigraphic relationships. The final paper outlines preliminary two- and three-dimensional groundwater flow models for the Fraser delta and the Brookswood aquifer. Includes author index.
This handy pocket-sized book provides practical information and assistance to anyone engaged in small-scale surveys on the ground. The 3rd edition updates the considerable changes in instrumentation, and far-reaching developments in applications that have occurred since 1996. New sections include details on Ground Penetrating Radar, VLF and CSAMT/MT, GPS navigation, electromagnetic methods of conductivity mapping, capacity coupling, and audiomagnetotellurics (AMT).
Sustainable Management and Optimal Monitoring Network Design
Author: Shakeel Ahmed
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book contains the results and findings of the advanced research carried out in a pilot area with a thorough investigation of the structure and functioning of an aquifer in a granitic formation. It characterizes the hard rock aquifer system and examines its properties and behavior as well as systematically details the geophysical, geological and remote sensing applications to conceptualize such an aquifer system.
The Global Positioning System, with its capability for both precisely positioning and navigating an aircraft, has created new scientific opportunities for studying the earth. This book examines the state of the art in airborne geophysics as integrated with new precise positioning systems, and it outlines the scientific goals of focused effort in airborne geophysics, including advances in our understanding of solid earth processes, global climate change, the environment, and resources.
The full potential of geophysics in engineering investigations is still to be realised. The many available techniques can provide important information about the ground, its mass properties, its small-scale variations, and its anomalies of structure or content. The advantage of a geophysical survey is that it enables information to be obtained for large volumes of ground that cannot be investigated by direct methods due to cost. The applications of geophysics in the characterisation of contaminated land are still developing, but have great potential for example in the distribution and migration of pollutants in the ground and groundwater. Geophysics is still insufficiently or inappropriately used in engineering and the newer capabilities are not appreciated, so there is a need for up-to-date guidance about how to apply geophysical investigations.This report is published in co-operation with the Geological Society and presents a logical guide through the process of using geophysical investigation methods in site characterisation. It explores the roles of geophysical methods and provides the background to geophysics as an investigative tool. The procurement, management and reporting frameworks for a geophysical investigation are set out, and the importance of the involvement of a recognised geophysics specialist adviser with the work is emphasised. The report explains the need for a conceptual ground model to enable appropriate investigative methods to be chosen. The underlying science and current practices of the main techniques are explained as well as the processes of data acquisition, handling and presentation. The different targets determinable by geophysical methods are considered in separate sections for geological, geotechnical, geo-environmental and structural engineering applications. The report concludes with recommendations for practice. The guide is aimed at geotechnical and civil engineers, geologists and engineering geologists, specialist geophysics contractors, contractors, consultants and clients.