High-technology and globalization are arguably the two most important forces driving the US economy today. This book analyzes how they interact and the implications of that interaction. The methodology applies data and statistical analysis to determine the impact of these forces over a broad spectrum of the US economy. Key topics addressed include why the US economy runs a continuing trade deficit in manufactured high-tech goods, why high-tech firms steadily lose manufacturing jobs, while creating professional jobs, and why high-tech industries rely on foreign outsourcing for much of their manufacturing.
Developmental Network States in the Global Economy
Author: Sean O'Riain
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
This book argues that beneath the Irish trade and foreign investment boom lies a more interesting story of regional innovation promoted by an alliance between the state and local technical communities. This alliance was governed through a decentralized set of state institutions, drawing on 'global' and 'local' economic and political resources. This 'Developmental Network State' has had a significant impact on the growth of Ireland's high tech cluster and is central to the emergence of an international network of 'global high tech regions' from Silicon Valley to Ireland, Taiwan, and Israel. The book provides a detailed study of the rise of the software industry in Ireland and of the state institutions and political conditions which promoted it. It shows how new 'network state' policies and institutions have been central to high tech regions elsewhere.
This volume looks at the temporal and volatile ways in which Frankfurt and Tel Aviv engage the global economy and function as nodes within global networks. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative empirical studies of leading sectors, it systematically analyzes the process of network formation and highlights the role of national and regional policy. It will be of interest to academics, researchers, practitioners and policymakers working in urban and economic geography, public policy and economic development.
Business Organization and High-tech Employment in the United States
Author: William Lazonick
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute
Category: Business & Economics
Lazonick explores the origins of the new era of employment insecurity and income inequality, and considers what governments, businesses, and individuals can do about it. He also asks whether the United States can refashion its high-tech business model to generate stable and equitable economic growth. --from publisher description.
The process of globalization has had profound, often destabilizing, effects on space, at all levels (i.e. local, regional, national, international). This revealing book analyzes, both theoretically and empirically, the effects of globalization over space. It considers, through a dialogue among different paradigms, the ways in which space has become more important in the global economy. Globalization has been advocated as a way of shrinking time and space which will lead to a homogenized global market; a suggestion challenged in differing ways and with a variety of approaches by all the contributors to this volume. Leading authorities from a range of disciplines are represented amongst this impressive list of contributors, including Eric Sheppard, Bjørn Asheim, Richard Walker and Peter Swann. The chapters demonstrate persuasively the continuing, and even increasing, role of space in the global economy, and throughout, the book covers viewpoints from the fields of: international political economy economic geography regional and local economics. This impressive volume, which contains a selection of the best in contemporary scholarship, will be of interest to the international arena of academicians, policy makers and professionals in these or related fields.
Reports of a Joint Task Force of the National Research Council and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science on the Rights and Responsibilities of Multinational Corporations in an Age of Technological Interdependence
Focusing on the conflicts between the United States and Brazilian governments over Brazil’s efforts to develop a local computer industry, High-Tech Trade Wars examines the political struggle between governments and multinational corporations in today’s global economy. Sara Schoonmaker uses the technology industry to delve into one of the key political conflicts of our time: the construction of a free trade regime determined to open markets around the world to global capital, and attempts by Latin American, African, and other governments to resist this process. The Brazilian computer case is a prime example of a nationalist effort to promote local growth of a key high-technology industry—an effort that was eventually dismantled under the pressures of what Schoonmaker views as part of a broader process of neoliberal globalization. High-Tech Trade Wars presents a multidimensional view of the globalization process, where economic changes are shaped by political struggle and cultural discourse. It includes interviews with Brazilian industrialists and state officials involved with implementing and, eventually, dismantling Brazil’s informatics policy, and discussions of grassroots-level protests organized against neoliberal globalization during the recent WTO meetings in Seattle and Davos, Switzerland.
We have, in recent decades, been able to witness a veritable revolution in the world economy, known as ‘globalization’. Generally, the term is connected to the rapid increase of the free movement of goods, capital, people, ideas, information and knowledge around the globe. This book contributes to the meso- and micro-economic literature on innovation and entrepreneurship in the global economy.
Global value chains are radically altering how goods and services are produced--parts made in one country, for instance, are increasingly assembled in another and sold in a third. The globalisation of production has changed the industrial structure ...
List of Figures. Preface. 1. Globalization I: Liquids, Flows, and Structures. Some of the Basics. From Solids to Liquids (to Gases). Flows. Does Globalization Hop Rather Than Flow? Heavy, Light, Weightless. Heavy Structures That Expedite Flows. Heavy Structures as Barriers to Flows. Subtler Structural Barriers. Structure and Process. On the Increasing Ubiquity of Global Flows (and Processes) and Structures. Thinking About Global Flows and Structures. Chapter Summary. 2. Globalization II: Some Basic Issues, Debates, and Controversies. Is There Such a Thing as Globalization? If There Is Such a Thing as Globalization, When Did It Begin? Globalization or Globalizations? What Drives Globalization? If There Is Such a Thing as Globalization, Is It Inexorable? Does Globaphilia or Globaphobia Have the Upper Hand? If Globalization Is Not Inexorable, Has It Gone Too Far? What, if Anything, Can be Done About Globalization? Chapter Summary. 3. Globalization and Related Processes I: Imperialism, Colonialism, Development, Westernization, Easternization. Imperialism. Colonialism. Development. Westernization. Easternization. Comparisons with Globalization. The Era of the "Posts". Chapter Summary. 4. Globalization and Related Processes II: Americanization and Anti-Americanism. Clarifying Americanization. Some Useful Conceptual Distinctions. America's Logistical Technologies. A Broader and Deeper View of the Americanization of Consumer Culture. An American Empire? Minimizing the Importance of Americanization. Anti-Americanism. Post-Americanization. Chapter Summary. 5. Neo-Liberalism: Roots, Principles, Criticisms, and Neo-Marxian Alternatives. The Past, Present, and Future of Neo-Liberalism. Neo-Liberalism: An Exemplary Statement and the Basic Principles. Popular Neo-Liberal "Theory": The Case of Thomas Friedman. Critiquing Neo-Liberalism. Neo-Liberalism as Exception. Neo-Liberalism: The Case of Israel The End of History. The Death of Neo-Liberalism? Neo-Marxian Theoretical Alternatives to Neo-Liberalism. Chapter Summary. 6. Global Political Structures and Processes. On Political Processes and Flows. The Nation-State. Threats to the Nation-State. In Defense of the Nation-State. "Imagined Community". Changes in Global Nation-State Relations. Other Global Political Developments and Structures. Regional Political Organizations. Global Governance. Civil Society. Other Players. Chapter Summary. 7. Structuring the Global Economy. Before Bretton Woods. Bretton Woods and the Bretton Woods System. The End of Bretton Woods. Changes in, and Critiques of, Bretton-Woods-Era Organizations. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). European Union (Common Market). North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). MERCOSUR. OPEC. The Multinational Corporation (MNC). World Economic Forum. The Myth of Economic Globalization? Chapter Summary. 8. Global Economic Flows: Production and Consumption. Trade. Increasing Competition for Commodities. The Economic Impact of the Flow of Oil. Race to the Bottom and Upgrading. Outsourcing. Financial Globalization. Corporations, People, and Ideas. Consumption. Chapter Summary. 9. Global Culture and Cultural Flows. Cultural Differentialism. Cultural Hybridization. Cultural Convergence. Cultural Imperialism. Chapter Summary . 10. High-Tech Global Flows and Structures: Technology, Media, and the Internet. Technology. Media. The Internet. Chapter Summary. 11. Global Flows of People: Vagabonds and Tourists. Migrants. Migration. Tourists and Tourism. Chapter Summary. 12. Global Environmental Flows. Differences among Nation-States. Collapse. The Leading Environmental Problems. Global Responses. Chapter Summary 13. Negative Global Flows and Processes: Dangerous Imports, Diseases, Crime, Terrorism, War. Dangerous Imports. Borderless Diseases. Crime. Corruption. Terrorism. War. The Impact of Negative Global Flows on Individuals. Chapter Summary. 14. Global Inequalities I: Patterns of Inequality. Inequality. Rural-Urban. Chapter Summary. 15. Global Inequalities II: Global Majority-Minority Relations. Majority-Minority Relations in a Global Context. Social Definitions. Race and Ethnicity. Ethnicity. Race. Gender. Children. Sexual Minorities: Gays and Lesbians. Responding to and Resisting Minority Status: The Case of Women. Chapter Summary. 16. Dealing with, Resisting, and the Futures of, Globalization. Dealing with Globalization. Resisting Globalization. The Futures of Globalization. Chapter Summary. Appendix: Disciplinary Approaches to Globalization. Anthropology. Sociology. Political Science. Economics. Geography. Psychology. Literary Criticism (Postcolonial). Other Fields. Glossary. Index.
"This book leads to emergence of new, insufficiently analyzed and described organizational phenomena. Thoroughly studying this from international comparative cross-cultural perspective, Management Practices in High-Tech Environments presents cutting-edge research on management practices in American, European, Asian and Middle-Eastern high-tech companies, with particular focus on fieldwork-driven, but reflective, contributions"--Provided by publisher.
Globalization is transforming the world at an accelerated pace. Integration of the world continues, widening and intensifying international linkages in economic, political and social relations. Liberalization of trade and fmance, lubricated by revolutionary changes in information technology, has resulted in significant economic growth at the global level. On the other hand, the process of globalization is changing the nature of production relations, threatening the traditional roles of the nation-state, and carrying with it far-reaching implications for sustainable growth, development and the environment. Although both developed and developing countries are actively participating in this saga of globalization, nearly ninety countries, as the United Nations' Human Development Report, 1996 indicates, are worse off economically than they were ten years ago, leading to "global polarization" between haves and have nots. The report further indicates that the gap between the per capita incomes of the industrialized world and the developing countries, far from narrowing, has more than tripled during the last thirty years. Further, a majority of the countries benefitting from this globalization drive have seen a rise in inequality and poverty. This failure of market driven globalization to reward the benefits equitably led the United Nations to proclaim 1996 as the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty (IYEP) and the decade of 1997-2006 as the international decade for the eradication of poverty, and to promote "people-centered sustainable development".
Structural Change, Schumpetrian Adjustment, and New Policy Challenges
Author: Paul J.J. Welfens
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Business & Economics
Economic globalization has intensified since the 1980s and created faster channels of international interdependence and an accelerating technology race. In this new asymmetric world economy the EU is facing a dynamic and flexible US system which takes advantage of the global quest for foreign direct investment. Innovation policies in the EU - in particular in Germany - are found to be rather inadequate. There are also new theoretical challenges where a "structural macro model" and a Schumpetrian model of innovation and full employment are presented as new approaches. Besides theoretical challenges the increasing global dynamics raise new problems of international policy coordination which could lead to unsustainable economic globalization.
Grossman and Helpman develop a unique approach in which innovation is viewed as a deliberate outgrowth of investments in industrial research by forward-looking, profit-seeking agents. Traditional growth theory emphasizes the incentives for capital accumulation rather than technological progress. Innovation is treated as an exogenous process or a by-product of investment in machinery and equipment. Grossman and Helpman develop a unique approach in which innovation is viewed as a deliberate outgrowth of investments in industrial research by forward-looking, profit-seeking agents.
We are witnessing a transformation in the world economy as a result of the IT/e-business revolution. Modern logistics based on cheap communication and transportation are shifting the locus of production and the international division of labour between the West and the lower wage countries of East Asia and similar changes are occurring within East Asia itself. Looming over the entire picture is the colossus that is China and this transformation is making East Asia the manufacturing centre of the world economy. Written by a recognized expert in the area of business economics, this book analyzes these developments and evaluates their future impact on the development of East Asia and its role in the world economy. The book examines the effect of the IT revolution, globalization and the 'new economy' on the development of East Asia. The first book-length treatment of IT/e-business in the region, it questions whether the e-business revolution will renew and sustain the rapid economic development of East Asia.
Both proponents and opponents of globalization assume it is a process that sweeps across national borders. Indeed, over the last twenty years, the key features of globalization provide prima facie evidence for this conventional wisdom. Dramatic developments in information and communications technology, the rise of global companies and production networks, the unstoppable internationalization of financial markets, and the deregulation and privatization of service sectors are all important examples of how this process unfolds in its raw form. Nevertheless, the increase in regional economic activity is another striking feature of this process. As multinational corporations extend their global reach, regional networks also emerge in the global trading system. Globalization therefore does not only mean a global convolution of economies, but could also lead to a spatial concentration of economic activity. All through the 1990s and at the beginning of the new century, East Asia experienced numerous structural changes leading to interesting market developments. South Korea’s rise to developed country status, the integration of the Southeast Asian economies, and the rise of China have made this region the manufacturing center of the global economy. Considering the economic importance of Japan and the other East Asian nations in the world, the crucial questions that arise include: What are the linkages between the global strategies of multinational corporations and their regional business operations? Why do subregional strategies emerge, especially recently to take advantage of China as a production base and market? Are the modern business practices in a multinational corporation’s home country easily transferred to their overseas operations and are they readily absorbed by local employees? Finally, which strategic directions are Japanese, American, East Asian and European enterprises going in this important business area of the world? To answer these questions, this book takes a closer look at several structural features of the East Asian economy and the corporate and business strategies of multinational corporations. The volume assembles up-to-date research by a number of European, Australian and Japanese scholars, and presents analysis of various business aspects of regional strategies in a global economy.
This is a study of higher education in the world's four largest developing economies—Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Already important players globally, by mid-century, they are likely to be economic powerhouses. But whether they reach that level of development will depend in part on how successfully they create quality higher education that puts their labor forces at the cutting edge of the information society. Using an empirical, comparative approach, this book develops a broad picture of the higher education system in each country in the context of both global and local forces. The authors offer insights into how differing socioeconomic and historic patterns of change and political contexts influence developments in higher education. In asking why each state takes the approach that it does, this work situates a discussion of university expansion and quality in the context of governments' educational policies and reflects on the larger struggles over social goals and the distribution of national resources.