This book is available as open access through the Bloomsbury Open Access programme and is available on www.bloomsburycollections.com. It is funded by the University of Leicester. Between 1415, when the Portuguese first used convicts for colonization purposes in the North African enclave of Ceuta, to the 1960s and the dissolution of Stalin's gulags, global powers including the Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, British, Russians, Chinese and Japanese transported millions of convicts to forts, penal settlements and penal colonies all over the world. A Global History of Convicts and Penal Colonies builds on specific regional archives and literatures to write the first global history of penal transportation. The essays explore the idea of penal transportation as an engine of global change, in which political repression and forced labour combined to produce long-term impacts on economy, society and identity. They investigate the varied and interconnected routes convicts took to penal sites across the world, and the relationship of these convict flows to other forms of punishment, unfree labour, military service and indigenous incarceration. They also explore the lived worlds of convicts, including work, culture, religion and intimacy, and convict experience and agency.
Prisons and Forced Labour in Japan examines the local, national and international significance of convict labour during the colonization of Hokkaido between 1881 and 1894 and the building of the Japanese empire. Based on the analysis of archival sources such as prison yearbooks and letters, as well as other eyewitness accounts, this book uses a framework of global prison studies to trace the historical origins of prisons and forced labour in early modern Japan. It explores the institutionalization of convict labour on Hokkaido against the backdrop of political uprisings during the Meiji period. In so doing, it argues that although Japan tried to implement Western ideas of the prison as a total institution, the concrete reality of the prison differed from theoretical concepts. In particular, the boundaries between prisons and their environment were not clearly marked during the colonization of Hokkaido. This book provides an important contribution to the historiography of Meiji Japan and Hokkaido and to the global study of prisons and forced labour in general. As such, it will be useful to students and scholars of Japanese, Asian and labour history.
Coffee from East Africa, wine from California, chocolate from the Ivory Coast - all those every day products are based on labour, often produced under appalling conditions, but always involving the combination of various work processes we are often not aware of. What is the day-to-day reality for workers in various parts of the world, and how was it in the past? How do they work today, and how did they work in the past? These and many other questions comprise the field of the global history of work – a young discipline that is introduced with this handbook. In 8 thematic chapters, this book discusses these aspects of work in a global and long term perspective, paying attention to several kinds of work. Convict labour, slave and wage labour, labour migration, and workers of the textile industry, but also workers' organisation, strikes, and motivations for work are part of this first handbook of global labour history, written by the most renowned scholars of the profession.
This volume suggests a new way of doing global history. Instead of offering a sweeping and generalizing overview of the past, we propose a ‘micro-spatial’ approach, combining micro-history with the concept of space. A focus on primary sources and awareness of the historical discontinuities and unevennesses characterizes the global history that emerges here. We use labour as our lens in this volume. The resulting micro-spatial history of labour addresses the management and recruitment of labour, its voluntary and coerced spatial mobility, its political perception and representation and the workers’ own agency and social networks. The individual chapters are written by contributors whose expertise covers the late medieval Eastern Mediterranean to present-day Sierra Leone, through early modern China and Italy, eighteenth-century Cuba and the Malvinas/Falklands, the journeys of a missionary between India and Brazil and those of Christian captives across the Ottoman empire and Spain. The result is a highly readable volume that addresses key theoretical and methodological questions in historiography. Chapter 7 is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.
Global Histories of Work is the first title in the new series "Work in Global and Historical Perspective". This collection of selected articles written by leading scholars in different disciplines provides both an introduction and numerous insights into themes, debates and methods of Global Labour History as they have been developed over the last years. The contributions to the volume discuss crucial historiographical developments; present different professions that have gained new attention in the context of an emerging Global Labour History; critically engage the boundaries of "free" labour and the ambiguities contained in this concept; and take up and historicize current debates about "informal labour". Global Histories of Work will familiarize readers with a burgeoning fi eld of high academic, social, and political relevance.
On Coerced Labor focuses on forms of labor which, unlike chattel slavery, have received little scholarly attention. It provides discussions of legal definitions of unfree labor as well as empirical findings on convict and military labor, indentured labor, debt bondage, and sharecropping.
Empire of Convicts focuses on male and female Indians incarcerated in Southeast Asia for criminal and political offenses committed in colonial South Asia. From the seventeenth century onward, penal transportation was a key strategy of British imperial rule, exemplified by deportations first to the Americas and later to Australia. Case studies from the insular prisons of Bengkulu, Penang, and Singapore illuminate another carceral regime in the Indian Ocean World that brought South Asia and Southeast Asia together through a global system of forced migration and coerced labor. A major contribution to histories of crime and punishment, prisons, law, labor, transportation, migration, colonialism, and the Indian Ocean World, Empire of Convicts narrates the experiences of Indian bandwars (convicts) and shows how they exercised agency in difficult situations, fashioning their own worlds and even becoming “their own warders.” Anand A. Yang brings long journeys across kala pani (black waters) to life in a deeply researched and engrossing account that moves fluidly between local and global contexts.
The historical study of crime has expanded in criminology during the past few decades, forming an active niche area in social history. Indeed, the history of crime is more relevant than ever as scholars seek to address contemporary issues in criminology and criminal justice. Thus, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice provides a systematic and comprehensive examination of recent developments across both fields. Chapters examine existing research, explain on-going debates and controversies, and point to new areas of interest, covering topics such as criminal law and courts, police and policing, and the rise of criminology as a field. This Handbook also analyzes some of the most pressing criminological issues of our time, including drug trafficking, terrorism, and the intersections of gender, race, and class in the context of crime and punishment. The definitive volume on the history of crime, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice is an invaluable resource for students and scholars of criminology, criminal justice, and legal history.
Webs of Migration, Culture and Politics between Europe, Africa and the Americas, 1800–2020
Author: José Moya
Unlike most books on the Atlantic that associate its history with European colonialism and thus end in 1800, this volume demonstrates that the Atlantic connections not only outlasted colonialism, they also reached unprecedented levels in postcolonial times, when the Atlantic truly became the world’s major crossroads and dominant economy. Twice as many Europeans entered New York, Buenos Aires, and São Paulo in 3 years on the eve of WWI as had arrived in all the New World during 300 years of colonial rule. Transatlantic ties surged again with mass movements from the West Indies, Latin America, and Africa to North America and Western Europe from the 1960s to the present. As befits a transnational subject, the 24 contributors in this volume come from 14 different countries. Over half of the chapters are co-authored, an exceptional level of scholarly collaboration, and all but two are explicitly comparative. Comparisons include Congo and Yoruba slaves in Brazil, Irish and Italian mercenaries and adventurers in the New World, German Lutherans in Canada and Argentina, Spanish laborers in Algeria and Cuba, the diasporic nationalism of ethnic groups without nation states, and the transatlantic politics of fascism and anti-fascism in the interwar. Overall, the volume shows the Atlantic World’s distinctiveness rested not on the level or persistence of colonial control but on the density and longevity of human migrations and the resulting high levels of social and cultural contact, circulation, connection, and mixing. This title will appeal to students and researchers in the fields of Atantic and global history, migration, diaspora, slavery, ethnicity, nationalism, citizenship, politics, anthropology, and area studies.
Criminology has focused mainly on problems of crime and violence in the large population centres of the Global North to the exclusion of the global countryside, peripheries and antipodes. Southern criminology is an innovative new approach that seeks to correct this bias. This book turns the origin stories of criminology, which simply assumed a global universality, on their head. It draws on a range of case studies to illustrate this point: tracing criminology’s long fascination with dangerous masculinities back to Lombroso’s theory of atavism, itself based on an orientalist interpretation of men of colour from the Global South; uncovering criminology’s colonial legacy, perhaps best exemplified by the over-representation of Indigenous peoples in settler societies drawn into the criminal justice system; analysing the ways in which the sociology of punishment literature has also been based on Northern theories, which assume that forms of penalty roll out from the Global North to the rest of the world; and making the case that the harmful effects of eco-crimes and global warming are impacting more significantly on the Global South. The book also explores how the coloniality of gender shapes patterns of violence in the Global South. Southern criminology is not a new sub-discipline within criminology, but rather a journey toward cognitive justice. It promotes a perspective that aims to invent methods and concepts that bridge global divides and enhance the democratisation of knowledge, more befitting of global criminology in the twenty-first century.
Archaeological Investigation of the Western Australian Penal Colony 1850-1875
Author: Sean Winter
[Truncated abstract] The Western Australian penal colony, enacted in 1850 and lasting until the mid-1870s, has typically been examined as the end product of a larger pan-Australian process of convict transportation. As such Western Australian convictism has been viewed as essentially the same as that enacted in the Eastern Australian penal colonies, but on a much smaller scale, and crucially, as unimportant within the greater story of Australian convictism. This view has been exacerbated by a concerted effort in Western Australia itself to erase the convict period from colonial memory. In comparison with New South Wales and Tasmania, there has been very little archaeological or historical research conducted into the Western Australian penal system. Consequently we know very little about the operation of the system, the lives of the convicts within it and the impact it had on the development of Western Australia. This view that Western Australian convictism was basically the same as that in the eastern Australian colonies is problematic because the system existed within a penal paradigm that was fundamentally different to the one which inspired the settling of New South Wales 60 years earlier. In 1850 British transportation occurred within a legislative and ideological framework that was focussed on reform and incarceration, rather than the simple removal of unwanted criminals. Transportation was no longer considered an effective punishment and the practice was only continued by the British government to advance specific strategic interests and operated within a global administrative and legislative framework applied equally in different penal colonies. Modelling of this global framework demonstrates that the form and operation of the Western Australian system had as much in common with contemporary penal colonies in Bermuda and Gibraltar, as with earlier systems in New South Wales and Tasmania. Physically, Western Australian convictism was designed to meet both the needs of the British penal system and those of the colony. Fremantle Prison, the central hub of the network, operated under the same legislation as any other British prison within the Empire and was intended for the reform, control and punishment of newly arrived and recalcitrant convicts. However the "ticket-of-leave" system, a limited form of parole, was extensively used outside the prison to mobilise convict labour and ticket-of-leave men were dispersed throughout a network of eight regional convict depots and subsidiary work stations. Archaeological and historical investigation of three convict depots, at York, Toodyay and Guildford, demonstrate that away from Fremantle, traditional penal concerns of security, control and reform were low priority. Instead, these places were designed to allow settler access to convict labour and to reinforce traditional British class hierarchies...
All work is free work – or is it? Rooted in the historical and theoretical debates over the status of labor, this volume analyzes the relationship between free and forced work, migration, and the role that states play in producing un-freedom. With contributions among others from Stephen Castles, Cindy Hahamovitch, Vincent Houben and William G. Martin, the book explores constrained labor forms across the world from the mid-19th century to today.
An emphasis on global structures and forces tends to privilege elites and their accomplishments, especially in the grand narratives of student textbooks. This book is an antidote to such studies and places 'ordinary' people and subordinated subjects at the heart of its analysis, arguing that disruption and dissent are overlooked agents of historical change. The contributors range from leaders in the field to rising stars, and cover themes including: - religious conversions - political revolutions - labor struggles - body politics. Each chapter takes a global view of the topic at hand, creating an accessible study of its subject from 1750 to the present day. World Histories From Below has the potential to refocus our entire approach to teaching world history.
During global capitalism's long ascent from 1600–1850, workers of all kinds—slaves, indentured servants, convicts, domestic workers, soldiers, and sailors—repeatedly ran away from their masters and bosses, with profound effects. A Global History of Runaways, edited by Marcus Rediker, Titas Chakraborty, and Matthias van Rossum, compares and connects runaways in the British, Danish, Dutch, French, Mughal, Portuguese, and American empires. Together these essays show how capitalism required vast numbers of mobile workers who would build the foundations of a new economic order. At the same time, these laborers challenged that order—from the undermining of Danish colonization in the seventeenth century to the igniting of civil war in the United States in the nineteenth.
Redefining the Empire with Forced Labor and New Imperialism
Author: Timothy J. Coates
In Convict Labor in the Portuguese Empire, Timothy J. Coates examines the numbers, rationale, and realities of convict labor (largely) in Angola from 1800 to 1932. Mozambique is a secondary area as well as late colonial times in Brazil.
Coercive Geographies examines historical and contemporary forms of coercion and constraint exercised by a wide range of actors in diverse settings. It links the question of spatial confines to that of labor.
This extensive Handbook addresses a range of contemporary issues related to Prison Tourism across the world. It is divided into seven sections: Ethics, Human Rights and Penal Spectatorship; Carceral Retasking, Curation and Commodification of Punishment; Meanings of Prison Life and Representations of Punishment in Tourism Sites; Death and Torture in Prison Museums; Colonialism, Relics of Empire and Prison Museums; Tourism and Operational Prisons; and Visitor Consumption and Experiences of Prison Tourism. The Handbook explores global debates within the field of Prison Tourism inquiry; spanning a diverse range of topics from political imprisonment and persecution in Taiwan to interpretive programming in Alcatraz, and the representation of incarcerated Indigenous peoples to prison graffiti. This Handbook is the first to present a thorough examination of Prison Tourism that is truly global in scope. With contributions from both well-renowned scholars and up-and-coming researchers in the field, from a wide variety of disciplines, the Handbook comprises an international collection at the cutting edge of Prison Tourism studies. Students and teachers from disciplines ranging from Criminology to Cultural Studies will find the text invaluable as the definitive work in the field of Prison Tourism.