Orwell believed that true prose should be “like a windowpane” and he, himself, strove to write clearly and precisely. His early works, not only those of a journalistic nature, are primarily autobiographical. He outlined what he considered the essence of prose in his essay “Shooting an Elephant” and further developed the ideas in his essay “Politics and the English Language”. In this work, Orwell argues that political dishonesty and inaccurate, slovenly language are inextricably linked. The Spanish civil war significantly influenced Orwell’s life. In 1936, Orwell arrived in Spain as a journalist. However, always true to his beliefs, upon his arrival in Barcelona he immediately joined a guerrilla group of Marxist workers (POUM). He fought on the Aragon and Teruel fronts and received a grave wound. The impressions wrought by his time in Spain did not fade throughout Orwell’s life. In his final pre-war novel, Coming Up for Air, he denounced the modern erosion of traditional values. Orwell criticized both English socialism and Stalinism. Orwell understood his duty as a writer to be the promotion of an ideal, liberal, socialism while defending against the totalitarian tendencies that threatened the times. His goals are clearly observed in the 1945 novel Animal Farm. This satire of the Russian Revolution and the crushed hopes that resulted is told as an allegory featuring farm animals who take over the management of the farm from the farmer for their betterment. Orwell published his final book, 1984, in 1949. It features a future dystopia in which Orwell intricately portrays a totalitarian society saturated with anger and fear. THE NOVELS BURMESE DAYS A CLERGYMAN’S DAUGHTER KEEP THE ASPIDISTRA FLYING COMING UP FOR AIR ANIMAL FARM NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR THE MEMOIRS DOWN AND OUT IN PARIS AND LONDON THE ROAD TO WIGAN PIER HOMAGE TO CATALONIA THE POETRY OF GEORGE ORWELL THE NON-FICTION BOOK REVIEWS AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL NOTE
Just fifty years ago Julian Huxley, the biologist grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley, published a book which easily could be seen to represent the prevail ing outlook among young scientists of the day: If I were a Dictator (1934). The outlook is optimistic, the tone playfully rational, the intent clear - allow science a free hand and through rational planning it could bring order out of the surrounding social chaos. He complained, however: At the moment, science is for most part either an intellectual luxury or the paid servant of capitalist industry or the nationalist state. When it and its results cannot be fitted into the existing framework, it and they are ignored; and furthermore the structure of scientific research is grossly lopsided, with over-emphasis on some kinds of science and partial or entire neglect of others. (pp. 83-84) All this the scientist dictator would set right. A new era of scientific human ism would provide alternative visions to the traditional religions with their Gods and the civic religions such as Nazism and fascism. Science in Huxley's version carries in it the twin impulses of the utopian imagination - Power and Order. Of course, it was exactly this vision of science which led that other grand son of Thomas Henry Huxley, the writer Aldous Huxley, to portray scientific discovery as potentially subversive and scientific practice as ultimately en slaving.
This twelfth volume of ABHB (Annual bibliography of the history of the printed book and libraries) contains 3333 records, selected from some 2000 periodicals, the list of which follows this introduction. They have been compiled by the National Committees of the following countries: Italy Australia Austria Luxembourg Belgium The Netherlands Poland Bulgaria Canada Portugal Denmark Rumania Finland South Africa France Spain German Democratic Republic Switzerland German Federal Republic USA Great Britain USSR Hungary Yugoslavia Ireland (Republic of) Spain and Latin America have partially been covered through the good of fices of an American colleague. Benevolent readers are requested to signal the names of bibliographers and historians from countries not mentioned above, who would be willing to co-operate to this scheme of international bibliographic collaboration. The editor will greatly appreciate any communication on this matter. Subject As has been said in the introduction to the previous volumes, this bibliography aims at recording all books and articles of scholarly value which relate to the history of the printed book, to the history of the arts, crafts, techniques and equipment, and of the economic, social and cultural VIII INTRODUCTION environment, involved in its production, distribution, conservation, and description. Of course, the ideal of a complete coverage is nearly impossible to attain. However, it is the policy of this publication to include missing items as much as possible in the forthcoming volumes. The same applies to countries newly added to the bibliography.
Nineteen Eighty Three's three intertwining storylines see the Quartet's central themes of corruption and the perversion of justice come to a head as BJ, the rent boy from Nineteen Seventy Four, the lawyer Big John Piggott - who's as near as you get to a hero in Peace's world - and Maurice Jobson, the senior cop whose career of corruption and brutality has set all this in motion, find themselves on a collision course that can only end in a terrible vengeance. Nineteen Eighty Three is an epic tale which concluded an extraordinary body of work confirming Peace as the most innovative and remarkable new British crime writer to have emerged for years.
Eric Arthur Blair, who is more famous all around the world under his pen-name George Orwell, was born more than one hundred years ago, on 25 June 1903 in the town Motihari, British India in a family of an employee of the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service. The iconic story Animal Farm and the novel 1984 are his brightest works written in the anti-utopian genre that flourished in the 20th century. The pioneer of the anti-utopia is considered to be a Russian writer Yevgeny Zamyatin, whose novel We influenced on the Orwell’s works and not less famous Aldous Huxley, the author of Brave New World. And what is more, it was Orwell, who came up with an expression the Cold War. In the essay Why I Write (1946), Orwell pointed out: “Every line of the serious work that I had written since 1936 was directed, directly or not, against the totalitarianism and for the democratic socialism as I understand it.” Orwell sharply condemned Western authors, who identified socialism with the Soviet Union, in particular, George Bernard Show. Orwell was convinced that the countries which were going to build the socialism should not try to follow the Soviet Union, but, first of all, be afraid of it. The only mistake George Orwell made in his anti-utopia 1984 was the date. A lot of things that he described as if happening in 1984 can be observed in the nowadays world. However, he depicted the future that everyone should be afraid of at any time. “I am sure that totalitarian idea lives in the consciousness of intellectuals everywhere, and I tried to follow this idea till the end. My story is set in England to emphasize that English speaking nations are not better than others and that the totalitarianism can win everywhere if it is not fought against”, George Orwell wrote not long before his death. Nineteen Eighty-Four Animal farm Looking back on the Spanish War