Winner of the British Society of Criminology Book Prize, 2015 Fleetwood explores how women become involved in trafficking, focusing on the lived experiences of women as drug mules. Offering theoretical insights from gender theory and transnational criminology, Fleetwood argues that women's participation in the drugs trade cannot be adequately understood through the lenses of either victimization or agency.
Are men and women who are prosecuted for similar crimes punished differently? If women are sentenced more leniently, does it vary with race and class? This work explores these issues and others by focusing on a variety of processed court cases such as homicide, robbery and drug offences.
'For any criminologist looking to make sense of recent developments in the field, this is the go-to book. In essays by leading specialists, it provides the latest updates on traditional theories whilst charting new directions. It also offers intepretive frameworks for criminology's current flux and fragmentation and closely examines relationships among theory, policy, and criminal justice practice. Invaluable and indispensible!' - Nicole Rafter, Professor, Northeastern University The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory re-centres theory in the boldest, most thought-provoking form possible within the criminological enterprise. Written by a team of internationally respected specialists, it provides readers with a clear overview of criminological theory, enabling them to reflect critically upon the variety of theoretical positions - traditional, emergent and desirable - that are constitutive of the discipline at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Each chapter has been specially commissioned to include the following: " A brief historical overview of the theoretical perspective " Core ideas and key associated concepts " A critical review of the contemporary status of the perspective " Reflections on future developments In addition the Handbook features a substantive introduction by the editors, providing a review of the development of criminological theory, the state of contemporary criminological theory and emergent issues and debates. The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory is an indispensable international resource for libraries and scholars of all levels studying the rapidly developing, interdisciplinary field of criminology.
First published in 2000. This series is dedicated to creative, scholarly work in criminal justice and criminology. Moreover, we ask the authors to emphasize readability. In this anthology Martin Schwartz and Dragan Milovanovic have managed to produce a work that is a combination of both. They also did this in the face of difficulties presented by a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodologies. The subject matter of this anthology-race, gender, and class-is a critical one for criminology.
For some time sex has been defined as the biological difference between men and women, and gender as the manner in which culture defines and constrains these differences. Feminine/masculine, male/female, women/men, boy/girl - terms of sexual and gender division like these permeate the way we think and talk about ourselves and each other. On most occasions we find their use non-problematic and people employ them easily, at other times, however, particularly if we are interested in psychology, we may wonder whether this ease is illusory.; One may speculate whether being a woman necessarily implies being "feminine". One may question why young women are often referred to as girls, while men are seldom referred to as boys. Is dressing in a stereotypically feminine manner a reliable indication that a woman is heterosexual? What about cross dressing? Why do these topics hold so much fascination for the media?; "Gender, Sex and Sexuality" examines the effects that the inequalities experienced between men and women have had on the psychologies of both sexes, and the battle to remove them. It aims to introduce the reader to current research and theories, drawing on novels, theatre, soap operas, as well as research for case histories.
Using texts ranging from the writings of Schlegel to the speeches of the fiftieth-anniversary commemoration of D-Day, these essays explore the ways in which nostalgia brokers the relations between the master narratives of gender and the master narratives of nationalism. Although such narratives seem to present nation as an unchanging essence, these essays all deal with texts that on analysis show nationalism in an evolving response to developments, both political and cultural, that destabilize the idea of nation.
The editors, Rosemary Gartner and Bill McCarthy, have assembled a diverse cast of criminologists, historians, legal scholars, psychologists, and sociologists from a number of countries to discuss key concepts and debates central to the field. The Handbook includes examinations of the historical and contemporary patterns of women's and men's involvement in crime; as well as biological, psychological, and social science perspectives on gender, sex, and criminal activity. Several essays discuss the ways in which sex and gender influence legal and popular reactions to crime. An important theme throughout The Handbook is the intersection of sex and gender with ethnicity, class, age, peer groups, and community as influences on crime and justice. Individual chapters investigate both conventional topics - such as domestic abuse and sexual violence - and topics that have only recently drawn the attention of scholars - such as human trafficking, honor killing, gender violence during war, state rape, and genocide.
The Social and Economic Lives of Women Drug Sellers
Author: Ira Brant Sommers
Publisher: Nova Publishers
Category: Social Science
This book examines women's participation in the cocaine/crack economy of New York City. All the women are or were long-term drug dealers, not those who casually dealt drugs. In order to be included in the authors' study, a person had to have sold drugs for at least two years. Many of the respondents were involved in drug distribution for considerably longer periods. Thus, the voices heard here are of those who had substantial drug selling careers. The authors' seek to describe the lives of women drug dealers -- not so much from their point of view, as from the women's own. In the research undertaken, they sought to listen to the women and understand the cultural perspectives through which they created their lives. Thus, the women are represented as responsive subjects and present their world as close as possible to how they saw it. Throughout the book, the women describe their experiences through their own vernacular.
An Inside View of Hazards and Expectations of Street Children in Peru
Author: G.K. Lieten
Category: Social Science
This brief studies the phenomenon of street children in two cities in Peru. It looks at some of the conceptual issues and, after analysing why children are in the street and what behaviour and which aspirations they exhibit, deals with the policy issues and lessons to be learned. This brief investigates when and why the transition from children on the street (street-working children) to children of the street (street living children) takes place and elucidates how they survive. It explains the fluidity and the risks involved in any type of child street life.
Expert guidance for child welfare and youth care professionals looking to increase their knowledge about, and skills in, working with transgender and gender expansive youth and their families. Many professionals working in child welfare and youth service (including line workers, supervisors, managers, and administrators), lack adequate knowledge about trans or gender expansive identities, which means they are not sufficiently prepared to address or respond to the needs of trans or gender expansive youth. This guide will provide readers with the information they need to do their jobs effectively with youth of all genders, including guidance on relationships, discrimination, mental health, foster care and homelessness. It provides examples of successful practice in a variety of case narratives from youth and their families.
This book studies young people’s use of psychoactive drugs and its social and psychological correlates in Hong Kong. Specifically, it focuses on how life satisfaction may affect drug use among a sample of psychoactive drug users in Hong Kong. The book addresses the dearth of research on the role of young people’s life satisfaction in their drug abuse and engagement in other risk behaviors in Hong Kong. It also examines how changes in the drug scene from heroin addiction to psychoactive party drug use since the late 1990s has necessitated a deeper exploration of the subculture of young people, which shapes their attitudes and behaviors regarding how they structure their lives and how they perceive the risks of drug use, in the context of the global trend of normalization of recreational drug use. Readers will benefit from the results of a rigorous analysis of a unique set of longitudinal data that reveals the factors influencing drug use among young psychoactive drug users, academic implications of the findings for social science theory and research on young people’s drug use, and practical implications of the findings for prevention and intervention services for young people in Hong Kong and other Asian societies.
The U.S.ÐMexico border is frequently presented by contemporary media as a violent and dangerous place. But that is not a new perception. For decades the border has been constructed as a topographic metaphor for all forms of illegality, in which an ineffable link between space and violence is somehow assumed. The sociological and cultural implications of violence have recently emerged at the forefront of academic discussions about the border. And yet few studies have been devoted to one of its most disturbing manifestations: gender violence. This book analyzes this pervasive phenomenon, including the femicides in Ciudad Ju‡rez that have come to exemplify, at least for the media, its most extreme manifestation. Contributors to this volume propose that the study of gender-motivated violence requires interpretive and analytical strategies that draw on methods reaching across the divide between the social sciences and the humanities. Through such an interdisciplinary conversation, the book examines how such violence is (re)presented in oral narratives, newspaper reports, films and documentaries, novels, TV series, and legal discourse. It also examines the role that the media have played in this process, as well as the legal initiatives that might address this pressing social problem. Together these essays offer a new perspective on the implications of, and connections between, gendered forms of violence and topics such as mechanisms of social violence, the micro-social effects of economic models, the asymmetries of power in local, national, and transnational configurations, and the particular rhetoric, aesthetics, and ethics of discourses that represent violence.
From their posts at the center of the pandemic - in the laboratory, the academy, clinics, and community based organizations - experts such as Evelynn Hammonds, Risa Denenberg, Michelle Murrain, and Paul Farmer criticize blind spots in the recognition and treatment of HIV in women and articulate accessible and practical solutions to specific areas of difficulty.
Sexual practices and drug use among the young are examined in this book, calling into question mainstream assumptions about ‘adolescence’. Bringing together a range of cross-cultural and cross-national contributions, the book reveals both similarities and important differences that mark sexuality and drug use among young in different social and cultural settings. In doing so, it allows the reader to build up a clearer understanding of the challenges that must be faced in public health and education if we are to develop programs and interventions that really serve the needs of young people. The book will be of interest to professionals working with young people and is suitable for a wide range of multidisciplinary courses covering areas such as human sexuality, sex education, public health and social work.
Why do so many people feel compelled to drink alcohol or take drugs? And why do so many men drink and so many women refrain? Using ideas from social anthropology, this book attempts to provide a novel answer to these questions. The introduction surveys both gender and addiction. It points out that we cannot say what men or women are really like, in any culturally innocent sense, for gender is always, even in the realm of biology, a cultural matter. The ethnographic chapters, ranging from Ancient Rome to modern Japan, similarly suggest how any substance - from alcohol to tea to heroin - inevitably takes its meaning or reality in the cultural system in which it exists.This book will be of interest to medical anthropologists, medical sociologists, anyone with an interest in the contemporary direction of anthropology as well as those working in the fields of alcohol and addiction.
Through an in-depth analysis of the multifaceted manifestations of gender and conflict, this book shows how cognition and behaviour, agency and victimization, are gendered beyond the popular stereotypes. Conflict not only reconfirms social hierarchies and power relations, but also motivates people to transgress cultural boundaries and redefine their self-images and identities. The contributions are a mix of classical ethnography, performance studies and embodiment studies, showing ’emotions and feelings’ often denied in scientific social research. Strong in their constructivist approach and unorthodox in theory, the articles touch upon the dynamic relation between the discourses, embodiments and symbolic practices that constitute the gendered world of conflict. The localities and research sites vary from institutional settings such as a school, rebel movements, public toilets and the military to more artistic domains of gendered conflicts such as prison theatre classes and the capoeira ring. At the same time, these conflicts and domains appropriate wider discourses and practices of a global nature, demonstrating the globalised and institutionalised nature of the nexus gender-conflict. A first set of chapters deals with ’breaking the gender taboos’ and renegotiating the stereotypical gender roles - masculinities or femininities - during conflict. A second set of chapters focuses more explicitly on the bodily experience of conflict either physically of symbolically, while the last set straddle body and narrative. The inductive quality of the work leads to unexpected insights and does give access to worlds that are new, and often surprising and unconventional.
This book presents an overview of the work of the most important Psychology researchers in Brazil, contributing to the internationalization of the discipline and fostering cross-cultural approaches in the field. Over the last two decades, Psychology research has experienced an enormous growth in Brazil, which has placed the country among the ten nations with the highest scientific output in the area. A big part of this output, however, remains inaccessible to the majority of the international community because it’s mainly published in Portuguese. This book intends to overcome this barrier, presenting a highly relevant sample of the best Psychology research produced in Brazil to those who are unable to read in Portuguese. In each chapter, a top Brazilian researcher is invited to present a summary of his/her main contributions to the field. The result is a rich overview of the main areas in which Brazilian psychologists have concentrated their work over the last decades, such as Developmental Psychology, Community Psychology, Educational and School Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Health Psychology, History of Psychology and Social Psychology. By putting together such a wide array of topics, Psychology in Brazil – Scientists Making a Difference offers a rich overview of the research in the country to psychologists, educators and social scientists in general interested in cross-cultural approaches within the Behavioral Sciences.
This book is an important introductory textbook on sexual politics and an original contribution to the reformulation of social and political theory. In a discussion of, among other issues, psychoanalysis, Marxism and feminist theories, the structure of gender relations, and working class feminism, Connell has produced a major work of synthesis and scholarship which will be of unique value to students and professionals in sociology, politics, women's studies and to anyone interested in the field of sexual politics. Visit www.raewynconnell.net
Why are there pronounced gender differences in rates of criminal victimization? Does gender influence the response of the criminal justice system and other parts of the community to offenders and to crime victims? What part does gender play in the etiology of illegal activities committed by both males and females? Understanding Gender, Crime, and Justice takes a contemporary look at such questions and considers areas that are often neglected in other books on gender, crime, and justice. In the last three decades, there has been an explosion of theory and related research relevant to gender, crime, and justice. Author Merry Morash, a well-known feminist scholar in the field of criminal justice, acquaints readers with key breakthroughs in criminological conceptualization and theories to explain the interplay between gender and both crime and justice. Understanding Gender, Crime, and Justice pays especial attention to race, ethnicity, and immigrant groups, and provides a unique comparative perspective. Key Features Includes first-person accounts from crime victims, workers in the justice system, male lawbreakers, and women engaged in prostitution to give insight into a diversity of experiences and standpoints Parallels the effects of gender and sexual orientation in laws, in patterns and causes of victimization, and in the responses of the justice system to both victims and offenders Integrates international examples to place U.S. experiences in a comparative perspective and to show gender inequities on a worldwide scale Provides numerous photos--unique for a text of this type--to portray people of all sorts in various regions of the world Includes Web site recommendations for further exploration of chapter topics Understanding Gender, Crime, and Justice is an ideal textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses that focus on women and criminal justice. The book is also a valuable asset for gender courses in sociology and for women's studies programs.
W.E.B. Du Bois said that "the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line." It has been one hundred years since Du Bois made that prescient statement, which naturally leads to the question: "What is the problem of the twenty-first century?" In this anthology, the authors address a wide range of topics: race, gender, class, sexual orientation, globalism, migration, health, politics, culture, and urban issues--from a diversity of disciplinary perspectives. Paul Attewell, David Lavin, Thurston Domina, and Tania Levey examine the black middle class at the turn of the millennium. Todd C. Shaw considers how race shapes patriotism in the wake of the September 11 attacks. Robert A. Brown focuses on the growing chasm between blacks and whites with regard to views of government's obligation to address citizens' basic needs. H. Alexander Welcome details instances where white scholars have improperly analyzed black experiences. Antonio Pastrana revisits Du Bois's theories about the problems facing blacks. Joy James shows that the United States possesses the means and wealth to record and preserve (or censor) its slave/penal discourse as part of its vast warehouse of (neo)slave narratives. Ajuan Maria Mance hypothesizes that African-American literature will become less consumed with exploration and documentation of interracial differences, and more concerned with the relationships within ethnic groups. Rosamond S. King explores literary embodiments of the increasing prevalence of interracial relationships. Anthony J. Lemelle and BarBara Scott present a comparative historical policy analysis of the HIV/AIDS experience among African Americans. Sandra Barnes examines sociological promises and problems of the contemporary black church. Juan Battle and Natalie Bennett scrutinize the experiences of African American gays and lesbians in the context of the larger community. Verna Keith and Diane Brown assess the state of African American health in the context of social group structures. Michael Bennett looks at the problems and opportunities facing black Americans from the perspective of urban studies. Juan Battle is professor of sociology at Hunter College and the City University of New York Graduate Center. Michael Bennett is professor of English at Long Island University, Brooklyn. Anthony Lemelle is professor of sociology at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee and the editor of the Journal of African American Studies, published by Transaction.