Fundamentals and Applications of Anion Separations

Author: Bruce A. Moyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 114

This book documents the proceedings of the symposium "Fundamentals and Applications of Anion Separations" held during American Chemical Society National Meeting in Chicago, Illinois, August 25-30, 200I. Nearly 40 papers devoted to discussions on anion separation related to fundamental research and applications were presented. The symposium, sponsored by Osram Sylvania, BetzDearbom, and the Separation Science & Technology Subdivision of the Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society was organized by Bruce A. Moyer, Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Building. 4500S, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6119, and Raj P. Singh, Chemicals and Powders R&D, Osram Sylvania, Chemical and Metallurgical Products Division, Towanda, PA 18848. It drew presenters from Australia, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, South Africa, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Separations constitute an integral part of chemical industry. Chemical products typically originate in resources that must be concentrated and purified, chemically transformed, and subjected to fmal purification. Effluent streams from the processes must be treated to recycle reusable components and to remove environmentally harmful species. Some industrial processes are devoted to environmental cleanup after pollution has occurred. In addition, many analytical methods require a separation for preconcentration, or a separation may be an inherent part of the analysis itself. Micro separations occurring at membranes or interfaces are also related phenomena employed for ion sensing. Many species targeted for separation are naturally anionic. Although the standard separations techniques ofextraction, ion exchange, adsorption, precipitation, etc.

High Resolution Separation and Analysis of Biological Macromolecules, Part A: Fundamentals

Author: Barry L. Karger

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 622

View: 208

The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. More than 260 volumes have been published (all of them still in print) and much of the material is relevant even today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences. Liquid chromatography Electrophoresis Mass spectrometry

Green Separation Processes

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Carlos A. M. Afonso

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 383

View: 958

This timely book is the first to provide a comprehensive overview of all important aspects of this modern technology with the focus on the "green aspect". The expert authors present everything from reactions without solvents to nanostructures for separation methods, from combinatorial chemistry on solid phase to dendrimers. The result is a ready reference packed full of valuable facts on the latest developments in the field - high-quality information otherwise widely spread throughout articles and reviews. From the contents: * Green chemistry for sustainable development * New synthetic methodologies and the demand for adequate separation processes * New developments in separation processes * Future trends and needs It is a "must-have" for every researcher in the field.

Chromatography

Fundamentals and applications of chromatography and related differential migration methods - Part A: Fundamentals and techniques

Author: E. Heftmann

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 584

View: 718

Chromatography has emerged as the most important and versatile analytical method. The book is not only an updated version of Heftmann's classical text, but it covers areas of future importance, such as microfluidics and computer resources. Under his experienced guidance, authorities in each field have contributed their practical experience to an integrated treatment of modern micro analysis. In Part A the theoretical basis of individual separation methods is explained and the technical aspects are illustrated. It includes the theory of gas and liquid chromatography as well as specific chromatographic techniques, such as size-exclusion, planar, ion, and affinity chromatography as well as various electrokinetic separation techniques. Microfluidics are covered for the first time and useful sources of analytical instruments are listed and evaluated. 1. Each chapter written by an authority 2. Thorough treatment of the theoretical basis of separation methods 3. Practical guide for performing analyses

Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry

Author: Douglas A. Skoog

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 1072

View: 176

Known for its readability and systematic, rigorous approach, this fully updated Ninth Edition of FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY offers extensive coverage of the principles and practices of analytic chemistry and consistently shows students its applied nature. The book's award-winning authors begin each chapter with a story and photo of how analytic chemistry is applied in industry, medicine, and all the sciences. To further reinforce student learning, a wealth of dynamic photographs by renowned chemistry photographer Charlie Winters appear as chapter-openers and throughout the text. Incorporating Excel spreadsheets as a problem-solving tool, the Ninth Edition is enhanced by a chapter on Using Spreadsheets in Analytical Chemistry, updated spreadsheet summaries and problems, an Excel Shortcut Keystrokes for the PC insert card, and a supplement by the text authors, EXCEL APPLICATIONS FOR ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, which integrates this important aspect of the study of analytical chemistry into the book's already rich pedagogy. New to this edition is OWL, an online homework and assessment tool that includes the Cengage YouBook, a fully customizable and interactive eBook, which enhances conceptual understanding through hands-on integrated multimedia interactivity. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Industrial Separation Processes

Fundamentals

Author: André B de Haan

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 357

Separation operations are crucial throughout the process industry with respect to energy consumption, contribution to investments and ability to achieve the desired product with the right specifications. Our main objective in creating thisgraduate level textbook is to present an overview of the fundamentals underlying the most frequently used industrial separation methods. We focus on their physical principles and the basic computation methods that are required to assess their technical and economical feasibility. The textbook is organized into three main parts. Separation processes for homogeneous mixtures are treated in the parts on equilibrium based molecular separations and rate-controlled molecular separations. The part on mechanical separation technology presents an overview of the most important techniques for heterogeneous mixture separation. Each chapter provides a condensed overview of the most commonly used equipment types. The textbook is concluded with a final chapter on the main considerations in selecting an appropriate separation process for a separation task. As the design of separation processes can only be learned by doing, we have included exercises at the end of each chapter. Short answers are given at the end of this book; detailed solutions are given in a separate solution manual.

Technetium

Chemistry and Radiopharmaceutical Applications

Author: Klaus Schwochau

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 446

View: 591

Klaus Schwochau Technetium Chemistry and Radiopharmaceutical Applications This unique handbook provides a comprehensive survey of the present status of Technetium chemistry and its radiopharmaceutical applications. All Technetium aspects such as natural and artificial occurence in the environment, isotopes and isomers, analytical chemistry and electrochemistry, thermodynamic data, stability and reactivity, intermetallic and binary compounds, and predominantly complex chemistry, and radiopharmacy are presented in an clear and precise manner. This outstanding presentation allows both experts and non-experts a quick access to the subject. Therefore this handbook is an indispensable reference for researchers at universities and research centers, in the nuclear mdecine and radiopharmaceutical industries as well as consultants in government and environmental agencies.

Handbook of Methods and Instrumentation in Separation Science

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 880

View: 413

Handbook of Methods and Instrumentation in Separation Science, Volume 1 provides concise overviews and summaries of the main methods used for separation. It is based on the Encyclopedia of Separation Science. The handbook focuses on the principles of methods and instrumentation. It provides general concepts concerning the subject matter; it does not present specific procedures. This volume discusses the separation processes including affinity methods, analytical ultracentrifugation, centrifugation, chromatography, and use of decanter centrifuge and dye. Each methodology is defined and compared with other separation processes. It also provides specific techniques, principles, and theories concerning each process. Furthermore, the handbook presents the applications, benefits, and validation of the processes described in this book. This handbook is an excellent reference for biomedical researchers, environmental and production chemists, flavor and fragrance technologists, food and beverage technologists, academic and industrial librarians, and nuclear researchers. Students and novices will also find this handbook useful for practice and learning. One-stop source for information on separation methods General overviews for quick orientation Ease of use for finding results fast Expert coverage of major separation methods Coverage of techniques for all sizes of samples, pico-level to kilo-level

Supported Ionic Liquids

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Rasmus Fehrmann

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 705

This unique book gives a timely overview about the fundamentals and applications of supported ionic liquids in modern organic synthesis. It introduces the concept and synthesis of SILP materials and presents important applications in the field of catalysis (e.g. hydroformylation, hydrogenation, coupling reactions, fine chemical synthesis) as well as energy technology and gas separation. Written by pioneers in the field, this book is an invaluable reference book for organic chemists in academia or industry.

Electrophoretic Deposition: Fundamentals and Applications III

Author: Aldo Roberto Boccaccini

Publisher: Trans Tech Publications Ltd

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 324

View: 843

Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). This volume is entirely focussed on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as a processing technique for the fabrication of both traditional and novel materials.

Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration

Fundamentals & Applications

Author: Sirshendu De

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 857

A response to increasingly stringent regulation of pollution and toxicity levels in industrial waste discharge, Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration: Fundamentals & Applications offers the most complete book available on the benefits and use of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) to achieve continuous removal of organic and inorganic pollutants. An Unparalleled Book That Addresses Both Academic and Industrial Points of View Several membrane-based techniques, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis, are currently used in a wide range of applications throughout the textile, pulp and paper, sugar, chemical, pharmaceutical, biomedical, biotechnological, and food industries. However, although reverse osmosis is an effective means of removing contaminants, this book explains why MEUF is a better substitute, as it less expensive, less energy-intensive, and more efficient and practical for a wider range of applications. Topics covered include: Effects of pollution in water and its consequences Various treatment processes and membrane technologies Fundamentals of ultrafiltration Outline of various membrane modules and modeling approaches Principles of colloid chemistry Theories of micelle formation Stability and dynamics of micelles Phenomena of counterion binding Solubilization of organic pollutants Selection criteria for surfactants Various flux enhancement techniques Recovery of precious metals This book conveys how, with proper selection of surfactant and membrane, MEUF can be used to efficiently remove almost all metal ions (heavy metals, lanthanides, radioactive materials, etc.) with reasonably high efficiency and throughput. It also details the MEUF process for removal of inorganic (cations, anions, and their mixture) and organic pollutants. The authors explain how the economy of the overall process makes recovery and reuse of surfactants essential, and they address various influencing factors on the increase in throughput and the resulting operating problems. Elaborating on technologies involving precipitation and other methods, they also illustrate additional potential applications for MEUF technology.

Ion-Exchange Membrane Separation Processes

Author: H Strathmann

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 360

View: 844

Today, membranes and membrane processes are used as efficient tools for the separation of liquid mixtures or gases in the chemical and biomedical industry, in water desalination and wastewater purification. Despite the fact that various membrane processes, like reverse osmosis, are described in great detail in a number of books, processes involving ion-exchange membranes are only described in a fragmented way in scientific journals and patents; even though large industrial applications, like electrodialysis, have been around for over half a century. Therefore, this book is emphasizing on the most relevant aspects of ion-exchange membranes. This book provides a comprehensive overview of ion-exchange membrane separation processes covering the fundamentals as well as recent developments of the different products and processes and their applications. The audience for this book is heterogeneous, as it includes plant managers and process engineers as well as research scientists and graduate students. The separate chapters are based on different topics. The first chapter describes the relevant Electromembrane processes in a general overview. The second chapter explains thermodynamic and physicochemical fundamentals. The third chapter gives information about ion-exchange membrane preparation techniques, while the fourth and fifth chapter discusses the processes as unit operations giving examples for the design of specific plants. First work on the principles and applications of electrodialysis and related separation processes Presently no other comprehensive work that can serve as both reference work and text book is available Book is suited for teaching students and as source for detailed information

Electroactive Materials for Anion Separation - Technetium from Nitrate

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 5

View: 338

Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions. These include the high priority pollutants chromate, pertechnetate, and nitrate ions. In addition, there are also industrial and urban applications where the separation of anionic species from aqueous streams is critical. Examples include industrial water recycle and waste water treatment (e.g., chloride ion removal for the pulp and paper industry, borate ion in the chemical and nuclear industries) and drinking water and agricultural waste treatment (e.g., nitrate removal). In the proposed research, technetium is chosen as the target pollutant. Because of its half-life of 213,000 years, technetium (99Tc) presents a long-term hazard for waste disposal. Much of the 99Tc in the tank wastes is present as pertechnetate (TcO4- ), accounting for its high solubility and mobility in aqueous systems. Several sorbents are available for removing TcO4- from alkaline waste brines, but each has important drawbacks. The use of commercial ion exchange (IX) resins to extract TcO4-, e.g., Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (Eichrom Industries), generates significant secondary waste. The elution of TcO4- from Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resins requires either concentrated nitric acid or a concentrated caustic solution of ethylene-diamine containing a small amount of tin chloride. This eluant has a short shelf life requiring frequent preparation, and the 99Tc is delivered in a complexed, reduced form. While TcO4- can be eluted from ABEC 5000 resins using de-ionized water, the much-reduced capacity of ABEC 5000 resins in comparison to the Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resins leads to a low column capacity. In general, unwanted secondary wastes are generated because (1) the only effective eluant happens to be hazardous and/or (2) the IX material has a low capacity or selectivity for the target ion, resulting in more frequent elution and column replacements. Alternative IX materials that have high capacities, can be regenerated easily, and are highly selective for TcO4- would avoid these problems. Electrochemically active IX media meet these criteria. Such an IX system uses electrically induced changes in the media to expel sorbed ions through a charge imbalance rather than requiring chemical eluants to ''strip'' them. Therefore, this medium eliminates the need to prepare, store, and dispose of many of the process chemicals normally required for IX operations. The focus of the project is to develop a fundamental understanding of how the physical and chemical properties of electroactive ion exchange (EaIX) materials control their efficiency when used as mass separation agents. Specifically, the desirable characteristics of EaIX materials for separation applications are (1) high reversibility, (2) high selectivity, (3) acceptable physical and chemical stability, (4) rapid intercalation and de-intercalation rates, and (5) high capacity. Because of these requirements, EaIX materials share many properties in common with conventional ion exchangers and electroactive polymers. For example, EaIX materials require the selectivity typically found in ion exchangers; they also require the redox reversibility of electroactive polymers. The results of this work will allow the rational design of new materials and processes tailored for the separation of specific anions.

Ionic Liquids in Separation Technology

Author: Antonia Perez De Los Rios

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 378

View: 914

Ionic Liquids in Separation Technology reports on the most important fundamental and technological advances in separation processes using ionic liquids. It brings together the latest developments in this fascinating field, supplements them with numerous practical tips, and thus provides those working in both research and industry with an indispensable source of information. The book covers fundamental topics of physical, thermal, and optical properties of ionic liquids, including green aspects. It then moves on to contexts and applications, including separation of proteins, reduction of environmental pollutants, separation of metal ions and organic compounds, use in electrochromic devices, and much more. For the specialist audience the book serves as a recompilation of the most important knowledge in this field, whereas for starting researchers in ionic liquid separation technology the book is a great introduction to the field. First book in the marketplace dedicated to ionic liquids in separation technology Contributions from scientists in academia and researchers in industry ensure the coverage of both scientific fundamentals and industrial applications Covers a broad collection of applications in separation technology which makes the book a single source of information Includes many practical tips for researchers in industry and scientists who apply ionic liquids in their work

Chromatography

Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods. Part A: Fundamentals and Techniques

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 387

View: 633

Chromatography

Adsorbents

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Ralph T. Yang

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 424

View: 967

Adsorption promises to play an integral role in several futureenergy and environmental technologies, including hydrogen storage,CO removal for fuel cell technology, desulfurization oftransportation fuels, and technologies for meeting higher standardson air and water pollutants. Ralph Yang's Adsorbents provides asingle and comprehensive source of knowledge for all commercial andnew sorbent materials, presenting the fundamental principles fortheir syntheses, their adsorption properties, and their present andpotential applications for separation and purification. Chaptertopics in this authoritative, forward-looking volume include: - Formulas for calculating the basic forces or potentials foradsorption - Calculation of pore-size distribution from a single adsorptionisotherm - Rules for sorbent selection - Fundamental principles for syntheses/preparation, adsorptionproperties, and applications of commercially availablesorbents - Mesoporous molecular sieves and zeolites -¸-complexation sorbents and their applications - Carbon nanotubes, pillared clays, and polymeric resins Yang covers the explosion in the development of new nanoporousmaterials thoroughly, as the adsorption properties of some of thesematerials have remained largely unexplored. The whole of this bookbenefits from the new adsorbent designs made possible by theincrease in desktop computing and molecular simulation, makingAdsorbents useful to both practicing laboratories and graduateprograms. Ralph Yang's comprehensive study contributessignificantly to the resolution of separation and purificationproblems by adsorption technologies.