The Advanced Study Institute on Synthesis, Functional Properties and Applications of Nanostructures, held at the Knossos Royal Village, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, July 26, 2002 - August 4, 2002, successfully reviewed the state-of-the-art of nanostructures and nanotechnology. It was concluded that Nanotechnology is widely agreed to be the research focus that will lead to the next generation of breakthroughs in science and engineering. There are three cornerstones to the expectation that Nanotechnology will yield revolutionary advances in understanding and application: • Breakthroughs in properties that arise from materials fabricated from the nanoscale. • Synergistic behavior that arise from the combination of disparate types of materials (soft vs. hard, organic vs. inorganic, chemical vs. biological vs. solid state) at the nanoscale. • Exploitation of natural (e.g. chemical and biological) assembly mechanisms that can accomplish structural control at the nanoscale. It is expected that this will lead to paradigms for assembling bio-inspired functional systems that accomplish desirable properties that are either unavailable or prohibitively expensive using top-down approaches.
This book, based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO ASI on "Functional Properties of Nanostructured Materials", gives a broad overview on its topic, as it combines basic theoretical articles, papers dealing with experimental techniques, and contributions on advanced and up-to-date applications in fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, electrochemistry, sensorics, and biotechnology.
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology are experiencing a rapid development in many aspects, like real-space atomic-scale imaging, atomic and molecular manipulation, nano-fabrication, etc. , which will have a profound impact not only in every field of research, but also on everyday life in the twenty-first century. The common efforts of researchers from different countries and fields of science can bring complementary expertise to solve the rising problems in order to take advantage of the nanoscale approaches in Materials Science. Nanostructured materials, i. e. materials made with atomic accuracy, show unique properties as a consequence of nanoscale size confinement, predominance of interfacial phenomena and quantum effects. Therefore, by reducing the dimensions of a structure to nanosize, many inconceivable properties will appear and may lead to different novel applications from na- electronics and nanophotonics to nanobiological systems and nanomedicine. All this requires the contribution of multidisciplinary teams of physicists, chemists, materials scientists, engineers and biologists to work together on the synthesis and processing of nanomaterials and nanostructures, und- standing the properties related to the nanoscale, the design of nano-devices as well as of new tools for the characterization of nano-structured materials. The first objective of the NATO ASI on Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Technological Applications was to assess the up-to-date achie- ments and future perspectives of application of novel nanostructured materials, focusing on the relationships material structure ? functional properties ? possible applications.
This book discusses the early stages of the development of nanostructures, including synthesis techniques, growth mechanisms, the physics and chemistry of nanostructured materials, various innovative characterization techniques, the need for functionalization and different functionalization methods as well as the various properties of nanostructured materials. It focuses on the applications of nanostructured materials, such as mechanical applications, nanoelectronics and microelectronic devices, nano-optics, nanophotonics and nano-optoelectronics, as well as piezoelectric, agriculture, biomedical and, environmental remediation applications, and anti-microbial and antibacterial properties. Further, it includes a chapter on nanomaterial research developments, highlighting work on the life-cycle analysis of nanostructured materials and toxicity aspects.
The essence of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology is the ability to fabricate and engineer materials, structures and systems where the manipulation of the properties and functionalities is a result of the control of the material's building blocks whose dimension is in the nanometer regime. This book presents an in-depth description of nanostructures and the many ways that they can be advantageously engineered by the controlled assembly of suitable nano-objects as building blocks. Nanotechnology is here considered as an enabling technology by which existing materials, virtually all man-made, can acquire novel properties and functionalities, making them suitable for novel applications varying from structural and functional to advanced biomedical in-vivo and in-vitro uses.The book emphasizes the development of useful implementations and applications of nanotechnology. One key issue addressed is how to access, from the macroscopic world, the extremely high information density of nanostructured systems. One way to do this is by using bio-inspiration - techniques where we apply lessons learned from living systems to design new materials with localized feedback mechanisms. Specifically, the book evaluates the most advanced and innovative syntheses of nanostructures, the most novel properties and functionalities and the most potential applications as components of advanced technological systems and as materials tailored for a great variety of special needs.
This book presents a multifunctional approach to the design of bulk nanostructured metals through severe plastic deformation (SPD). Materials engineering has traditionally involved selecting a suitable material for a given application. However, modern engineering frequently requires materials with a set of multifunctional, often conflicting properties: Enhanced mechanical properties need to be combined with improved physical (electrical, magnetic, etc.) and/or chemical (corrosion resistance, biocompatibility) properties. So disparate materials properties need to be engineered and optimized simultaneously. These requirements have created a paradigm shift in which the classical materials selection approach is replaced by design of material microstructures to achieve certain performance requirements, subject to constraints on individual properties such as strength, conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Written by researchers at the forefront of this new materials design approach, the present volume provides a comprehensive introduction to multifunctional design of bulk nanostructured materials, with applications ranging from hydrogen storage to construction engineering.
Symposium Held April 17-20, 2001, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
Author: Horst W. Hahn
Category: Technology & Engineering
The goal of this volume is to identify and elaborate upon the unifying themes in nanostructured materials research, vis-a-vis their synthesis, characterization, and applications. Specifically, researchers from around the world gather here to review advances in these areas, assess their impact across materials science, and chart a course for breaking important new ground. Materials modification from the nanoscale to the mesoscale are highlighted. Topics include: synthesis and self assembly of nanoparticles; targeted design and synthesis of nanoparticles; nanolithography and functional nanomaterials; nanotemplates and nanostructures; optical and electrochemical properties of nanoparticles; magnetic properties of nanomaterials; and nanoparticles in biological systems.
This book presents the most recent results in the area of bulk nanostructured materials and new trends in their severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing, where these techniques are now emerging from the domain of laboratory-scale research into the commercial production of various bulk nanomaterials. Special emphasis is placed on an analysis of the effect of nanostructures in materials fabricated by SPD on mechanical properties (strength and ductility, fatigue strength and life, superplasticity) and functional behavior (shape memory effects, magnetic and electric properties), as well as the numerous examples of their innovative applications. There is a high innovation potential for industrial applications of bulk nanomaterials for structural use (materials with extreme strength) as well as for functional applications such as nanomagnets, materials for hydrogen storage, thermoelectric materials, superconductors, catalysts, and biomedical implants.
This new edition presents information and knowledge on the field of biomedical devices and surgical tools. The authors look at the interactions between nanotechnology, nanomaterials, design, modeling, and tools for surgical and dental applications, as well as how nanostructured surfaces can be created for the purposes of improving cell adhesion between medical devices and the human body. Each original chapter is revised in this second edition and describes developments in coatings for heart valves, stents, hip and knee joints, cardiovascular devices, orthodontic applications, and regenerative materials such as bone substitutes. There are also 8 new chapters that address: Microvascular anastomoses Inhaler devices used for pulmonary delivery of medical aerosols Surface modification of interference screws Biomechanics of the mandible (a detailed case study) Safety and medical devices The synthesis of nanostructured material Delivery of anticancer molecules using carbon nanotubes Nano and micro coatings for medical devices This book is appropriate for engineers, material scientists, chemists, physicists, biologists, medical and dental professionals with an interest in biomedical devices and tools, and researchers in the same fields.